Type 1 diabetes
Definition of type 1 diabetes
Diabetes is defined as an excess of sugar in the blood (or blood sugar) in excess of 1.26 g / l fasting or 2 g / l non-fasting. There are several types of diabetes are the two main type 1 and type 2. Only type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes) is discussed in this chapter. Type 1 diabetes occurs mostly in children and young adults and for 170,000 people.
Risks and consequences of diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic disease more common in industrialized countries Diabetes affects about 3 million subjects (data Health Insurance In:.. Kusnik-Joinville O, Weill A, B et al Salavane Diabetes. Treaty: What changes between 2000 and 2005 Practice and Organisation of Care 2007, 38: 1-12), but experts agree that this figure is grossly underestimated because a third of diabetics are unaware of their condition. In fact, diabetes can initially remain completely silent. Complications are, however, a major public health, both medically and economically.
Causes and origins of type 1 diabetes
Pancreas, responsible for producing insulin, the hormone that regulates the sugar level in blood, is partially or totally destroyed. The onset of diabetes is most often brutal in type 1 diabetes. The cause of the failure of the pancreas is presently unknown, but the risk of developing type 1 diabetes is increased in case of family history, suggesting a genetic factor. Currently, treatment for life based on multiple daily insulin injections to compensate for the insulin deficiency and prevent kidney complications, ocular, neurological and cardiovascular diseases.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes
The onset of symptoms is usually sudden in type 1 diabetes with a triad of symptoms: weight loss, fatigue, high thirst (polydipsia) with very frequent urination (polyuria). Weight loss is sometimes accompanied paradoxically increased food intake.
The increase is related to drink water loss and increasing the frequency and volume of urine (3-4 l / day) is related to the escape of sugar by the kidney.
Diabetes can also be the occasion of its complications called ketoacidosis with symptoms of dehydration, abnormal breathing, abdominal pain and even coma and death.
Type 1 diabetes Prevention
With what should we be confused?
The type 1 diabetes should not be confused with other types of diabetes, type 2. This (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes) occurs preferentially from 40-50 years and reached between 2 and 3 million topics. Its occurrence, more and earlier, is related to lifestyle (sedentary lifestyle, eating habits, overweight ...) and family inheritance.
Diabetes insipidus is it about a leak due to a hormonal abnormality: the volume of urine up to 10 l / day.
Will it possible prevention of diabetes?
Adopt a balanced diet adapted to their lifestyle should be a priority for any diabetic. Similarly, it is essential to conduct regular physical activity, other factors reduce cardiovascular risk by controlling weight. The goal is to get a body mass index (ie your weight / your height, squared) less than 25, reducing his cholesterol and stopping smoking. Vaccination against influenza and pneumococcus is also part of the recommendations, diabetic subjects are more sensitive and vulnerable to infection.
Finally, diabetic feet should be examined regularly (skin deformations) and pampered (port shoe care pedicures ...). An annual visit to the eye doctor and dentist complete prevention.
Type 1 diabetes Prepare consultation
The onset of symptoms making evoke diabetes should lead to a medical consultation to check the level of sugar in the blood (controlled doctor's office by a finger prick or a laboratory blood glucose). It is a medical emergency, because in the absence of insulin, the body can not live very long (risk of ketoacidosis and death). Once diagnosed, any imbalance or infection diabetes must consult your doctor to prevent hyper-or hypoglycemia (increase or decrease in blood sugar).
What is the doctor in case of type 2 diabetes?
The doctor, in coordination with the specialist (diabetologist endocrinologist) will confirm the diagnosis by blood tests and possibly other tests to detect an origin, risk factors or complications of diabetes. The main goal of treatment is to control blood glucose (sugar) is too high due to insulin deficiency. The insulin injections (variable number of daily injections two to five injections, insulin pump ...) are the basis of this treatment The doctor tells the patient to adjust the dose (TPE) and reduce other risk factors (prevention).
How to prepare for my next visit?
Measured by the patient's blood glucose in a drop of blood (self several times a day) is essential between consultations. It allows to adapt insulin doses to achieve the goal of glycemic control set with the doctor and reduce complications. This objective will be checked by a doctor every 3 months with a blood test (glycated hemoglobin or HbA1c) and book filled with carefully monitoring the patient.
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