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Gingivitis Definition Medical, Risks, Causes and Prevention


Definition of Gingivitis

Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums caused by bacteria present in aggression in dental plaque, now called "bacterial biofilm." This disease occurs at all ages, to greater or lesser degrees. It can lead to a destruction of the surface portion of the gum; which causes severe pain to prohibit the supply.

Risks and health issues of gingivitis


If it is not treated in time, gingivitis may develop into periodontitis with loss of bone around the tooth, mobility and possible loss of it. Periodontally all tissue fixation and supporting the teeth, that is to say, the gum, the ligament and bone. Various studies show that gingivitis affects between 50 and 80% of people, and periodontitis 20 to 50%.

Gingivitis has a general impact on health: the bacteria in the mouth can spread in the body. Gingivitis is thus a risk factor of infarction, diabetes, and even premature births ...

Causes of Gingivitis

About 500 bacteria can cause gingivitis and their presence in the mouth varies by geographic areas and populations. The inequality of individuals with that infection is due to the familial susceptibility and oral hygiene. Those who have never had any decay are more likely to develop gingivitis: because the bacteria causing tooth decay compete with those responsible for gingivitis and reduce the "silence".
Power does not come into play in this disease although a vitamin C deficiency is a contributing factor. Bone loss is not related to age: gingivitis can begin in childhood and grow in the absence of proper oral hygiene.

Note: Some heavy treatments, such as immunosuppressive drugs given to transplant people favor gingivitis.

How manifests gingivitis?


The gums are red, sore and bleeding in simple non aggressive tooth brushing. That in the absence of anti-coagulant treatment in the absence of net deficiency of vitamin K and without liver disease that impairs blood clotting.
These signs are localized or generalized to the gum.

With what would it be confused gingivitis?

With dermatological diseases (leukoplakia or lichen type for doctors) that may develop in the mouth of otherwise unhealthy or defective oral hygiene, such as alcohol and tobacco abuse. Not periodontal disease.
Bleeding gums is the major sign of gingivitis that avoids confused with other diseases.

Will it possible prevention?

Good oral hygiene is both the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. The hygiene must be rigorous, effective and non traumatic: it is necessary to properly use his toothbrush, which must be adapted to the size and shape of the teeth.

A brush or a dental floss eliminate uninvolved interdental plaque by brushing.
Although the mechanical action is most useful when brushing, fluoride toothpaste helps protect the teeth more effectively. However, an antiseptic toothpaste, which can be useful against bacteria, should not be used all the time.

When to consult?

Consulting his dentist every year for at least scaling, is part of the prevention of gingivitis. If the gums bleed when you brush, she is ill: do not take this lightly but signs quickly consult your dentist for advice.

What does the dentist?

The dentist begins by analyzing the appearance of the gums (shape and color). He may need an x-ray to assess the quantity and quality of the bone under the gums if it suspects periodontitis. It can make a bacterial sample (simply rub the gums with a swab).

It establishes its diagnosis and treatment plan.
For simple gingivitis, an effective oral hygiene will be stimulated, after scaling and removal of dental plaque.
If periodontitis is installed, a mechanical treatment called surfacing (root cleaning and disinfection of the pockets, surgical or otherwise) is necessary.

How to prepare for my next visit to the dentist?

Summarizing medical history: our prescription medicines, surgery (especially transplant) and caries.

Explain the reason for the consultation (discomfort, pain, aesthetics), indicate whether it is a recurrence of gingivitis, if it has already been processed, and for how long is the inflammation.
Finally, family history (if parents are prone to gingivitis) give an indication.

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Frostbite Information, Risks, Health issues, Prevention and Consult


Information about frostbite

Frostbite of the extremities occur mainly in the mountains where the weather conditions are changing rapidly with falling temperatures of 6.5 ° C every 1000 meters. They are one of the consequences of prolonged exposure to cold. These are injuries to the movement disorders caused by cold, which mainly affect the extremities (hands and feet) and the face. Cold, humidity, but also skin contact with metal objects favor.

Risks and health issues frostbite

Cooling the body can cause many cold injury. Frostbite and hypothermia are the most serious. Frostbite concern mainly the fingers, toes, ears and nose, as these organs are devoid of major muscles to produce heat.

Mechanisms frostbite

The cold-induced vasoconstriction which decreases blood perfusion and thus oxygenation of the extremities. In case of exposure to cold, the body indeed preserves heat in internal organs, reducing peripheral blood circulation (the ends). Hands and feet thus tend to cool more quickly, leading up to frostbite.

How is he clear?

The first symptoms are tingling in the extremities. The skin then becomes white and cold, with a loss of sensitivity and blistering. When heated, pains are felt swelling.

A few days later, the affected area becomes black by tissue necrosis (tissue death) and in some cases the gangrene may require amputation of the limb.

With what should we be confused?

It should not be confused frostbite and chilblains. Frostbite is benign lesions caused by exposure to cold without freezing of tissues (temperature of the upper air freezing, 0 ° C).

The affected area is red, swollen with a tingling sensation or pain.

Will it possible prevention?

Prevention requires certain precautions: wear shoes and warm clothes and insulating wind and humidity, no excursion mountain without adequate equipment, always report their departure with an approximate schedule return for delivery of communication in case of problems.

Whatever the weather, we must fully cover, wear gloves and a hat that protects the ears, and use a lip balm that will prevent chapping and protect from the sun.

When to consult?


If symptoms such as tingling or pain, it is imperative to warm hands and extremities. Attention must slowly warm the tissue and avoid rubbing the affected parts.

Never use hot objects such as water bottles, and seek emergency at the stage of frostbite.

What does the doctor?

Frostbite evolve in three phases: numbness, movement disorders and tissue necrosis.

In the first stage, impairment is reversible with warming, including extremes: hot and sweet drinks, warming blanket.

Blood flow will be facilitated by loosening clothing and shoes and stirring the hands and feet.

From the second stage, the care is specialized treatment in hospital or ICU: not undertake any warming but wrap the victim in a blanket.

Warm baths of end abuses in warm water at 38 ° C can be provided.

At the stage of necrosis, sometimes amputation is the only treatment option.

How to prepare for my next visit?

The loss of sensitivity is one of the first signs of frostbite. The fingers are white as devoid of blood; at this stage, it is advisable to return the blood and sensitivity by moving, massaging or by warming under the armpits.

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Rotavirus gastroenteritis Definition, Health risks, Causes, Mechanisms, Signs and Symptoms


Definition of rotavirus gastroenteritis

Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a digestive infection caused by the invasion of a virus called "rotavirus" extremely contagious. Rotavirus gastroenteritis by changing seasonal epidemics, with a peak in winter, and mainly affects young children. It is also a nosocomial disease, by definition, hospital-acquired, as many children are infected while in hospital for another reason: bronchiolitis example.

Health risks and challenges of rotavirus gastroenteritis

Any diarrhea and / or vomiting is a risk of acute dehydration; it is especially important that the person is more fragile (very young or very old) and malnourished (importance of malnutrition in developing countries). Acute dehydration of a fragile person puts his life at risk. *

In a study published in 2005, Melliez and colleagues assessed morbidity and cost of digestive rotavirus infections in children under 5 years: they attribute to it every year 300,000 180,000 acute diarrhea and city consultations, 18,000 hospitalizations and death of ten.

The study Shrik * published in 2009 shows that nearly half (49.1%) of children admitted to the emergency for acute gastroenteritis suffer from rotavirus. They are very young: nearly 90% have less than 2 years and almost 20% less than 6 months.

For InVS, 43% to 51% of viral gastroenteritis in hospitalized under 5 are due to rotavirus. Complications, first dehydration occur in 20% of cases and cause thirty deaths annually. They are more common with rotavirus, particularly among infants less than 6 months.

In the city, only 20% of gastroenteritis due to rotavirus would, because of many "competitors" viral, including calicivirus (including the principal, Norovirus, may be more common than rotavirus), adenoviruses ... But gastro Rotavirus -entérites are most severe.

In people over 75 years, the mortality of viral gastroenteritis (all virus) is around 350 deaths annually. But the deaths are probably more because dehydration causes very poorly tolerated blood disorders in these individuals often malnourished, with several diseases and treatments delicate to handle: antihypertensive and cardiovascular drugs first.

Causes and mechanisms of gastroenteritis

The virus penetrates the intestinal cells and blocks its operation. The cells do not absorb water and food, the movement is reversed: they reject the intestine water and minerals essential to good blood balance. This digestive cell leakage is called "entero-toxigenic" it causes diarrhea and vomiting.
This viral invasion can permanently change the bacterial flora; and install a milk intolerance (sugar and protein) unwelcome in children.

Contagiousness is extreme: the stool of a baby can issue up to one billion viral particles of the 3rd day of the 5th day illness. Sometimes shedding continues for 15 days!

Symptoms and signs of gastroenteritis due to rotavirus

Rotavirus, like other gastrointestinal viruses, multiplies for two to three days after infection. The first symptom (usually but not always) has a high fever (up to 40 ° C) at the same time as diarrhea (from 3 stools / day more or less liquid) and sometimes vomiting. Vomiting is an unfavorable factor because they prevent food so rehydration. Any diarrhea carries a risk of dehydration, which made its danger.

Mild diarrhea

Mild diarrhea does not give signs of dehydration, there is no vomiting or weight loss.

Serious diarrhea

Serious diarrhea dehydrates. The symptoms are high fever, thirst (careful, toddlers do not know how to express it), a fold of skin (skin does not come back up immediately when pinched in the arm for example), the weight loss (5%), vomiting, loss of appetite ...

Severe diarrhea

Severe diarrhea sees signs of marked dehydration: persistent skin fold, sunken eyes,
dry mouth, crying without tears, gray complexion, significant weight loss +++ (10%), loss of consciousness leading to coma and death if no resuscitation is taken urgently.

With what should we be confused?

Any viral diarrhea is not: food poisoning bacteria (staphylococcus, E. coli, Salmonella) are not uncommon. The notion of a suspect food and similar cases in the entourage after the same meal referrals diagnosis. The presence of blood or mucus in the stool is a strong indication of bacterial infection.
Any diarrhea is not infectious: then there is no fever (except in special cases). The intolerance to cow's milk, gluten intolerance are causes to evoke systematically, especially when diarrhea persists.
Some diarrhea is associated with other infections or disorders: otitis, appendicitis, intussusception (occlusion) or deep UTI ...

Will it possible prevention?

The integral partial breastfeeding protects children against rotavirus gastroenteritis.
Hand hygiene and food (kitchen) is essential to limit epidemics and the number of people in a community (family, nursery).

Vaccination against rotavirus is 100% effective against the serious forms and hospitalizations. But it is not recommended in the general population by the Board of Public Hygiene since it protects against that half (at best) officials gastroenteritis virus. The oral vaccine is administered at the 6th week of life, especially to infants exposed to harsh conditions and / or random surveys. Two vaccines are licensed. One requires two doses to be taken by mouth and the other three doses.

When to consult?

Any liquid sudden diarrhea with vomiting requires rapid consultation of a doctor. Hospital emergency if the stools are continuous.

How to prepare for the consultation of doctor?

Immediately begin oral rehydration with "oral rehydration salts (ORS)" counter in pharmacies. In small regular amounts or even the syringe to the beginning if the child refuses solute bottle (1 sachet in 200ml of water).

Note the number of stools per day and their liquid or soft nature, presence or absence of blood and mucus.

Recall the context: current epidemic in the family, school, nursery, home nanny ...
But also other ongoing illnesses that make it very fragile person, heart and kidney disease in particular.

What does the doctor?

It checks the intensity of dehydration (weight, etc.), it evaluates the difficulty of re-hydrate and nourish the patient.

It identifies the exact cause as much as possible to develop the relevant treatment.

According to the condition, he decides to no supervision or hospitalization for intensive care.

It prescribes rehydration with oral rehydration solution (ORS) that restores blood and intestinal balance and recharge during illness. This resolves spontaneously within a week in mild cases. He explains the isolation of infants (out of the crib, or in the nanny) and hygiene rules to limit the spread of gastrointestinal virus. It adapts the current drugs, diarrhea and dehydration.

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Open or closed fractures what is it, Risks, Mechanisms and Prevention of fracture?


Open fractures, closed fractures: what is it?

A fracture is defined by the discontinuity or breakage of bones of the human body. We distinguish closed fractures (without wound and therefore no risk of infection) open fractures (with wound and risk of infection).

All the bones may be involved at all stages of life.

The causal mechanism of injury determines the type of fracture: compaction, avulsion if ligament injury, fracture of the femoral neck geared for example ...

What are the risks and health issues fractures?

All bones can be achieved but some fractures are most common in function of the age and location.

Compaction is characteristic of the vertebrae and occurs mainly in case of osteoporosis. Similarly, the femoral neck fracture occurs in a special way in the elderly.

Fracture risk factors are now identified: personal history of fracture fragility, age> 60 years, corticosteroids, history of fracture of the proximal femur in a first-degree relative, body mass index (BMI: weight / height squared) <19, early menopause (before age 40), smoking, alcohol abuse, decreased visual acuity, neuromuscular and orthopedic disorders.

What are the mechanisms of fractures?


A fracture occurs most often after trauma. Depending on the bone density (measured by BMD), a more or less violent trauma is necessary to break the bone.

For example: in a young patient, high energy is required to cause a fracture of the femur (accident of the public highway, high-rise fall ...) in an elderly patient, a simple fall from standing height enough.
In case of an open fracture, there is a communication between the outside and the fracture; the risk of infection is important because this communication represents an ideal gateway for infection.

How manifests a fracture?

Whatever the type of fracture, trauma is necessary for the cause. The main symptoms are a cracking, pain and swelling of the fractured region. Pain causes functional impairment, with inability example to set foot on the ground or to use the affected limb.

In an open fracture, skin lesions are visible with a break in the skin leaving collect a piece of bone. Nerves, muscles and vessels can also be affected.
In case of compaction, often vertebral pain is located in the back. No deformation is visible but palpation of the vertebra is painful. Signs of sciatica (leg pain) are also possible.
The bony avulsions follow a movement of a joint beyond the physiological possibilities; ligaments stretch and tear a piece of bone; exquisitely painful point is felt on palpation.

With what would it be confused fractures?

It should not be confused sprain or strain that affect joints and ligaments and fractures involving bones. A sprain can, however, be accompanied by avulsion fracture.
In the elderly, a broken hip meshed, that is to say, the femoral head and neck are nested, may go unnoticed because despite the pain, heel and leg can still move. Only radiography wide in these indications, will make the diagnosis.

Will it possible prevention of fracture?

The best prevention is still a good physical preparation, proper warm-up and a conservative sport.
Wearing appropriate clothing (knee, shin guards, helmet ...) avoids direct trauma.
The fight against risk factors is also recommended to prevent fractures. The diet should be balanced to avoid excess weight but also fight against deficiencies (lack of calcium and / or vitamin D). Tobacco and alcohol are two enemies of the bones and weaning is recommended.

If demineralization proven to bone densitometry (osteoporosis), hormone replacement therapy is offered in postmenopausal women (in the absence of cons-indication) and drugs fighting against bone destruction are available to all.

In case of suspected fracture, call for help, sit or lie the victim of severe pain to avoid discomfort and hold the two parts of the broken bone with a hand placed on each side to avoid they are mobile (intense pain factor). At best, place the fracture on a plane and straight support.

Tetanus immunization is checked for open fractures.

Fractures: when to consult?

Any persistent pain, swelling or deformity after trauma requires a medical consultation and possibly a radiograph.
Similarly, back pain, especially in patients with risk factors such as osteoporosis or treatment with corticosteroids should motivate a consultation not to neglect vertebral collapse.

What does the doctor faces a divide?

History of fracture risk factors (see above), mechanism of trauma and violence helps the practitioner to suspect a fracture. Palpation of bony prominences can highlight deformation or evocative painful point of a fracture or avulsion.

Elective pain on palpation of the spine fears vertebral collapse, but only the radiographic support or refute the diagnosis. Compaction can affect every facet of the vertebra or represent a compression fracture; MRI may specify any neurological compression.

In case of fracture of the femoral neck, several x-rays may be needed to clarify the type of fracture.

The common treatment of these fractures is the quiescence of the joint and the fight against pain.

Some are operable as femur fractures, open fractures or fractures settlement of unstable spine. For others, an asset or pulling suffice.

For open fractures, early antibiotic treatment prevents the risk of infection.

How to prepare for my next visit?
We must not neglect pain following injury and should be consulted.

In case of cast immobilization, any pain should be reported to the doctor to check the cast is not too tight and does not interfere with traffic.

If anticoagulant therapy is prescribed (spots) must be followed carefully to prevent phlebitis.
Wounds and sutures should be monitored; if they turn red, inflammatory with fever, a consultation is needed quickly.

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Complete or incomplete fractures Definition, Type of fracture, Risks, Causes and mechanisms of fractures


Definition and differences between complete fractures, incomplete fractures

A fracture is defined by the discontinuity or breakage of bones of the human body.

There are:

Closed fractures


This type of fracture is no wound and therefore no risk of infection.

Open fractures

This type of fracture is followed by a wound and risk of infection.

Complete fractures incomplete fractures

Incomplete fractures are fairly typical of the child because the bone can break partially while respecting the continuity of the periosteum that surrounds it.

All the bones may be involved at all stages of life.

Risks and health issues fractures

If all the bones can be achieved, some fractures are more common than others: wrist, femoral neck (elderly), ankle, leg and upper limbs.
Fracture risk factors are now identified: personal history of fracture fragility, age> 60 years, corticosteroids, history of fracture of the proximal femur in a first-degree relative, body mass index (BMI = weight / height squared) <19, early menopause (before age 40), smoking, alcohol abuse, decreased visual acuity, neuromuscular and orthopedic disorders.

Causes and mechanisms of fractures
The periosteum covers the long bones, flat and allows their growth. In case of incomplete fracture, periosteum is respected despite a broken bone underneath.
Fractures are directly related to bone mass. Its reduction or deterioration of bone tissue results in an increased risk of fracture. Bone strength can be assessed by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) by densitometry. This measure is useful only for those at risk of osteoporosis (bone loss).

How manifests a fracture?


Any trauma can cause a fracture whose main symptoms are a cracking, pain and swelling of the fractured region.

Distortion may be visible or not according to the angulation of the fracture: in incomplete fractures, angulation and deformation are not marked.

Pain causes functional impairment, with inability example to set foot on the ground or to use the affected limb.

With what would it be confused fractures?

It should not be confused sprain or strain that affect joints and ligaments and fractures involving bones. A sprain can, however, be accompanied by avulsion fracture.
At the level of a member, a sharp pain with impotence can be caused by a muscle tear without fracture; only radiography make the difference.

Will it possible prevention of fracture?

The best prevention is still a good physical preparation, proper warm-up and a conservative sport.
Wearing appropriate clothing (knee, shin guards, helmet ...) avoids direct trauma.
The fight against risk factors is also recommended to prevent fractures. The diet should be balanced to avoid excess weight but also fight against deficiencies (lack of calcium and / or vitamin D). Tobacco and alcohol are two enemies of the bones and weaning is recommended.

If demineralization proven to bone densitometry (osteoporosis), hormone replacement therapy is offered in postmenopausal women (in the absence of cons-indication) and drugs fighting against bone destruction are available to all.

Fractures: when to consult?

Any persistent pain, swelling or deformity after trauma requires a medical consultation and possibly a radiograph.

Unnoticed or ignored, a fracture can worsen and cause chronic pain, osteoarthritis and / or deformation.

What does the doctor faces a divide?

The doctor will clarify the antecedents and fracture risk factors (see above), the mechanism of trauma and violence. He then studied active and passive motility of the member concerned asking you to move spontaneously. Finally, palpation of bony prominences can highlight deformation or painful point.

Only an x-ray will help confirm the diagnosis. In children, radiographs are sometimes difficult to interpret.
The curvature traumatic results in exaggerated bone curvature without obvious feature of fracture.

The green wood has a fracture line on one side of the bone fracture, but the other side is respected; finally, the lump of butter fracture corresponds more to a slowdown in the bone.
Fracture treatment is based on the quiescence of the bone and joints, pain medication and immobilization (plaster, resin ...).

Depending on the case and the deformation, surgery can be necessary to refocus or secured fragments.

How to prepare for my next visit?

We must not neglect pain following trauma and view. In case of cast immobilization, any pain should be reported to the doctor to check the cast is not too tight and does not interfere with traffic.

If anticoagulant therapy is prescribed (spots) must be followed carefully to prevent phlebitis.

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Fractures Definition, Types, Risks, Causes, prevention and treatments


Definition of bone fracture

A fracture is defined by the discontinuity or breakage of bones of the human body. We distinguish closed fractures (without wound) open fractures (with wound and risk of infection). All the bones may be involved at all stages of life. The causal mechanism of injury determines the type of fracture: compaction, avulsion if ligament injury, fracture of the femoral neck geared for example ...

There are three types of fractures:

Bone fracture

It is most often due to trauma after a fall or blow, but a vicarious trauma is also possible (excessive twisting of the leg). In children, the bone can be incompletely fractured (one side of the remaining intact bone) fractures talking about "green wood".

The stress fracture

It occurs when repeated efforts imposed on a bone (sports with excessive training).

The so-called pathological fractures

It occurs in the absence of trauma or for a minimal blow; they reveal usually an already fragile bones (tumor ...).

Risks and health issues fractures

All bones can be achieved, but some fractures are most common in function of the age and location. The fracture of the wrist is the most common fracture in children (20 to 35% of fractures). Compaction is characteristic of the vertebrae and mainly occurs in osteoporosis. Similarly, the femoral neck fracture occurs in a special way in the elderly.


Fracture risk factors are now identified: personal history of fracture fragility, age> 60 years, corticosteroids, history of fracture of the proximal femur in a first-degree relative, body mass index (weight / height square) <19, early menopause (before age 40), smoking, alcohol abuse, decreased visual acuity and neuromuscular and orthopedic disorders.

Causes and treatments of fractures

A fracture occurs most often after trauma, more or less violent to break the bone. More bone density, the greater the shock will be significant. For example, the bones of the infant is mechanically less resistant than adults and therefore fracture more easily.

In closed fractures, the skin is intact; in open fractures, bone fragments pierce the skin with a high risk of infection.

Bone fragments can be moved or not; in the latter case, a single asset or longer (plaster, resin ...) will be enough to consolidate with callus formation will recover and strengthen the fractured bone.

How is he clear?

Fractures of the bones or joints are common and can affect the upper limbs, lower limbs, head, neck or back. The victim usually complains of severe pain, difficulty or inability to move, and the affected area is often of swelling and / or visible deformation. In case of compaction, often vertebral pain is located in the back but no deformation is visible.

In an open fracture, the bone fragment creates a wound with a risk of bleeding.

Fracture of the nasal bone is fractured nasal cartilage. It is manifested by deformation of the nasal septum and usually a nosebleed (or epistaxis).

With what should we be confused?


It should not be confused with other bone fractures fractures such as fracture of a solid organ (spleen, liver ...) for example. A violent abdominal trauma can indeed come to break the spleen or liver with a risk of internal bleeding. In case of shock with severe abdominal pain or malaise, emergency consultation is necessary.

Furthermore, it should not be confused sprain or strain, affecting the joints and ligaments. Sometimes only the radiograph will remove a bone fracture.

Will it possible prevention?

Prudence, good physical preparation and proper warm are safety pledges to prevent fractures.


Some equipment such as knee, shin guard or headphones are used to limit the consequences of direct trauma. They are particularly recommended for children at high-risk activities.


Power must be balanced to avoid excess weight but also fight against deficiencies (lack of calcium and / or vitamin D). Tobacco and alcohol are two enemies of the bones and weaning is recommended. If demineralization proven bone densitometry (osteoporosis) treatment may be proposed in postmenopausal women, and drugs fighting against bone destruction are available to all.

When to consult?

In case of suspected fracture, emergency you should call and do not mobilize the affected area. If the injured has fallen, is lying on the ground and complained of back, neck and / or head, immobilize the head maintaining constantly awaiting rescue.

What does the doctor?

Interview (history, risk factors for fracture, mechanism of trauma and violence) and clinical examination (palpation of bony prominences, mobilization and clinical tests) allow the fracture to suspect and ask indication of an X-ray. Deformation or painful point is very suggestive of a fracture or avulsion, but only the radiographic support or refute the diagnosis. Plain radiographs are usually sufficient to diagnose a fracture of a limb or the nose. However, settlements or complex fractures may require other tests to clarify the extent and consequences of the broken bone. For example, an MRI may specify any neurological compression in case of settlement.


The treatment of all fractures is immobilisation, which helps to fight against the pain and allows consolidation. Complex fractures (femur, open ...) or displaced require surgery by an orthopedic surgeon. There are several techniques under general or regional anesthesia, such as pinning, screwing with pins or external fixators. For other fractures, called conservative methods are preferred, with cast immobilization with or without reduction or continuous traction.

For open fractures, including nasal fracture with bleeding, early antibiotic treatment prevents the risk of infection.

How to prepare for my next visit?

If cast immobilization, any pain should be reported to the doctor to check that the cast is not too tight and not impeding traffic (called compartment syndrome with pain, numbness ...). If anticoagulant therapy is prescribed (bites), it must follow carefully to prevent phlebitis, and make the necessary blood tests to monitor treatment.

Wounds and sutures should be monitored; if they turn red, inflammatory with fever, a consultation is needed quickly.

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3 Tips to listen to music on your player without damaging your ears

AUDITION - An Ipsos survey highlights that 78% of 15-45 year olds have experienced hearing problems after strong sound exposure. Problems that are not necessarily temporary, but that can be avoided.

It's obvious excessive exposure to loud sounds causes hearing problems. You are 98% to be aware, reveals an Ipsos survey conducted for the association 's The Week . Yet, 78% of 15-45 year olds have experienced hearing problems such as tinnitus or hearing loss, following a strong sound exposure.

"It is a real cultural problem, says MetroNews with Dr. Jean-Michel Klein, president of the National Union of Medical Specialists in ENT ( SNORL ). They are aware of the risk but it does not prevent them from taking it. C 'is like driving at full speed drive knowing you can kill someone or stay in the sun despite the increased risk of skin cancer. "


To help adopt good habits prevention, we must move away from a "message castrating and moralizing," says ENT. Because "the normal use of the ear does not mean premature aging." The proof: "Deafness is not an occupational disease among attendants." Those are the excesses that cause tinnitus, ear fatigue or loss of hearing. Here is how to recognize and avoid them.

Prefer headphones headphones

Everything is pressing question, says Dr. Klein, "The sound is an acoustic pressure whose support is air sound of 100 dB at an office of four cubic meters will put pressure on the whole. the workpiece. With a headset, it will be exerted on a cubic centimeter. Or the vibration generated by the sound kills cells of the inner ear and breakage eyelashes important auditory decoding. " The problem is that the damage is irreversible.

The President of SNORL suggests, at equal volume, replace the helmet closed by headphones. It exercises indeed a more consistent sound pressure on the tympanic membrane as small headphones, which have an outwardly opening to reduce the pressure: "In the transport, it seems that People with headphones in his ears put him thoroughly, but it is because a third of its jurisdiction through this hole. "

Turn the volume

This does not make you put the strongest. Already in 2008, the National Prevention and Health Education Institute (INPES) recalled that "the ear can be damaged long before it does not feel any pain." Indeed, if the pain threshold is 120 decibels (dB), the danger threshold is he, 85 dB. Or the maximum volume of players is flanged to 100 dB, the equivalent of the sound of a jackhammer.

So enjoy the music by adjusting the volume of the player well below the maximum volume (three-quarters to go under the danger threshold, or even half as recommended INPES) and without trying to cover outside noise. Jean-Louis Horvilleur, audio-technician who participated in the Ipsos study, suggests you to "listen first piece in transport, and to listen to the same volume in his room" you will thus account Sound level you impose your eardrums.

Opt low compression pieces

Little trick to prevent you from listening to loud music, practical appreciated by 89% of 15-30 years: the best HD pieces. This time it is a matter of compression. "A compressed sound, this means removing the modulation of the sound, making it lose its relief. To find a good feeling, when your ear is accustomed, you subconsciously want to increase the volume." No wonder 30% of those who love listening to music loudly say do it for the sound quality. To prevent your ear abyss, so listen good sound.

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How long does a lung function test take


Importance of the lungs

The medical term lung function is the "pulmonary physiology."

The lungs are the most important organs of the respiratory system ....

This system has two main components: a respiratory pump (chest) and lungs (with the airway).

The rib cage acts as a bellows and makes getting in and out air from the lungs.

Lung function makes it possible to bring fresh oxygen (O2) to the body and remove carbon dioxide (CO2); these gas exchange, which is done by way of the bloodstream, allow to transport oxygen from the lungs to cells throughout the body.

Several organs involved in the functioning of the lungs and respiratory system also come in the central nervous system, the circulatory system (heart and blood vessels) and muscles of the chest and diaphragm.

The lung function also performs other tasks in the human body, such as heating air breathed his humidification and protection against harmful particles that could penetrate.

Pulmonary diseases

Lung function is essential to life.

Each year, a lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD affects 4 million people 100,000 patients with stage chronic respiratory insufficiency and 16 000 deaths.

How do the lungs?


The lungs are located in the chest and follow the trachea, which extends the larynx and is divided into two right and left bronchi that enter the corresponding lung.

In the lung, airways continue to divide into branches more and more numerous, short and thin, like the branches of the tree branches. The smaller bronchial tubes are called bronchioles. They open onto the cells lung, small air cavities which occurs the exchange of gases between air and blood.

Each lung is surrounded by a closed sac called the pleura.

The chest wall is itself formed of twelve pairs of ribs which join the sternum prior to dorsal vertebrae back. This grill is a rib bone protection; the diaphragm is a muscle that forms the floor of the thoracic cavity.
All anatomical structures involved in lung function and their role in gas exchange.

Blood capillaries (small blood vessels) form a dense network around the cells and allow the O2 / CO2 exchange.

How is he clear?

Breathing is an unconscious phenomenon controlled by nerve centers at the base of the brain. If the good functioning of the lungs, whatever the cause, conscious breathing becomes difficult because: it is then necessary to think to breathe If real difficulty breathing, doctors speak of dyspnea..

With what should we be confused?

Dyspnea or shortness of breath can have many causes that are not all related to lung function.

Some causes are extrarespiratoires, such as heart failure or neurological or metabolic disorder (blood disorder).

The lungs then play a compensatory role until the regulatory phenomena are exceeded, leading to acute respiratory failure.

Will it possible prevention?

Lung diseases have various causes (genetic, environmental ...) but in all cases, the preservation of lung function based on the judgment of active or passive smoking.

Smoking increases disease and lung problems: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (75% of cases are related to smoking), pneumonia, reduced lung capacity, reduced lung growth in children and adolescents smoking, asthma ...

When to consult?

Any respiratory difficulty should motivate an emergency consultation.

Some causes may require treatment in an emergency, such as asthma or pneumothorax. A call to SAMU Centre 15 describing the symptoms allows the doctor to send relief that will bring oxygen is lacking in the body.

What does the doctor?

The doctor several ways to assess and evaluate the functioning of the lungs.

The firm, he can determine the respiratory rate an individual breathes between 12 and 15 times per minute (inspiratory and expiratory movements).

It can then look and feel the chest to detect an abnormality of the motion of the lungs; asymmetry for example, or an anomaly to percussion on one side of the chest may reveal an underlying lung disease like pneumonia or pneumothorax.

Finally, auscultation with a stethoscope offers the possibility to the doctor listen to the sounds from the lungs and airways.

Other tests are used to assess lung function:
    pulsed oxygen pulse oximetry to measure eg fingerstick blood oxygenation, the peak-flow or other devices used to detect early and easily, with a general, ventilatory disorders.
    chest X-ray,
    the scanner or MRI themselves give information on the anatomy of the lungs.
    Pulmonary function tests (PFT) provide information on lung capacity and lung function.

How to prepare for my next visit?

If asthma or recurrent respiratory difficulties, it is important to identify the triggers or improvement. Allergic or environmental factors eg (air pollution) could then be discussed and tests provided by your doctor.

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All about Fibromyalgia Definition, Risks, Causes, Prevention, Symptoms and signs


Definition of Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by widespread pain in muscles and ligaments. The fibromyalgia patients often have difficulty sleeping and feel chronic fatigue. Fibromyalgia has long been designated by various terms including diffuse idiopathic polyalgic syndrome (SPID), chronic muscular rheumatism (1901), psychogenic rheumatism (1960), fibrositis (1983), and soft tissue rheumatism.

Risks and origins of the syndrome


Fatigue is a very common complaint in the general population: up to 50% say tired (Pascal Cathébras functional disorders and somatization. How to deal with medically unexplained symptoms Masson. 2006).

Fibromyalgia, such as chronic fatigue syndrome (without pain), have long been regarded as psychosomatic or imaginary diseases. Fibromyalgia was nevertheless recognized in 1992 by the World Health Organization (WHO) and would cover 2-5% of the population, mostly affecting women between 30 and 50 years with a ratio of 4 females to 1 male. It begins abruptly, often in conditions of "stress".

Causes of Fibromyalgia

The exact cause of fibromyalgia is not identified. Psychosomatic origin is mentioned, with a number of factors such as stress, accidents or surgeries. Fibromyalgia is an abnormal pain response, which is increased.

Symptoms and signs of fibromyalgia

The "warning signs" may appear before the symptoms of fibromyalgia fatigue on exertion, aches, tingling, poor tolerance to hot / cold, sleep disorders.
Otherwise, Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain associated with intense and chronic fatigue signs. Pain is the main symptom, affecting areas close to the spine (neck, shoulders, between the shoulders, shoulder blades, back ...). This pain can vary throughout the day depending on the stress and activity, but overall patients complain of having "hurt all over." Tender points are found by feeling the muscles. Fatigue or asthenia accompany these pains: difficulty standing, difficulty getting up in the morning ...

The psychological impact is very important, especially since sleep disorders prevent any recovery period. Anxiety or depression happen very quickly.

With what should we be confused fibromyalgia?

Algodystrophy is painful suffering members and follows trauma (fracture, dislocation, often plastered) in adults between 45 and 70 years. The joint becomes stiff non-mobilized and painful, with progressively dystrophy member, detectable on x-ray and bone scan.
Chronic fatigue syndrome is similar to fibromyalgia but no pain is present.

Finally, other diseases (adrenal insufficiency, depression, chronic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis ...) can be confused with fibromyalgia; additional tests will make the difference. No examination allows to directly ask the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. The tests performed are used to rule out other diseases that may give identical symptoms. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia is a diagnosis of exclusion.

Will it possible prevention of fibromyalgia?
The patient should take an active part in treatment.
Physical activity (walking, swimming ...) relieves pain and prevents muscle wasting. Warm-up, stretching or flexibility exercises are essential before starting the actual exercise.
Heat applied locally (hot shower) promotes relaxation of muscles.
Improving sleep can lessen the symptoms of the disease and any stress factor must be eliminated: behavioral therapies may be beneficial.

When to consult?

The impact of fibromyalgia is variable but could hinder personal and professional life An important factor in the treatment of fibromyalgia is early diagnosis. It suitable to act as soon as possible after the onset of symptoms.

What does the doctor?

The diagnosis of fibromyalgia is difficult; the diagnosis is often mentioned after months of pain and diagnostic wanderings. The American College of Rheumatology has established a score based on a questionnaire (duration of the disease, and many affected areas ...) that can help the doctor or rheumatologist to confirm the disease.
To eliminate other diseases, blood tests, x-rays or scans of the skeleton can be made ​​and are normal in fibromyalgia.

No specific treatment exists; the treatment is to relieve pain and manage other symptoms. Group of drugs tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants are used as analgesics (against pain).

How to prepare for my next visit?

Keep a log of daily activities and the effect they provide is used to identify the factors that aggravate or relieve. This will help the doctor find ways to change the lifestyle to feel less tired and less stressed.

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Atrial fibrillation Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Prevention


Definition of atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common disorder of the heart rate and potentially serious complications by (cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in particular) it generates.

The heart consists of four chambers (two atria and two ventricles) that contract to pump blood; FA is an anarchic contraction, rapid and irregular.

This fibrillation may be permanent, persistent (> 7 days) or change in paroxysms (<7 days).

Some arrhythmias of the atria are close and similar to the FA: This is atrial flutter and atrial tachycardia.

Health risks and challenges of atrial fibrillation

0.4% to 1% of the general population are affected by atrial fibrillation and this proportion increases with age (more than 8% over 80 years).

Most FA are due to an underlying disease, heart or not, but one third of cases are isolated, unconnected with cardiopulmonary disease. The severity of the disease is related to such thromboembolic complications: the FA actually causes vascular accidents, including brain (stroke) whose frequency is two to seven times higher.

Causes of atrial fibrillation

Among the atrial fibrillation, there are cardiac and extracardiac causes.
Cardiac causes include coronary heart disease (up to myocardial infarction), diseases of the heart valves, heart failure and all diseases of the heart.

Other non-cardiac causes such as hyperthyroidism, obesity or chronic lung diseases are also responsible for FA.

Symptoms of atrial fibrillation

The patient with atrial fibrillation may experience palpitations with feeling that the heart beats fast and irregularly. Attacks can last a few hours or be permanent. Anxiety, tightness and shortness of breath (dyspnea) frequently accompany.

Other patients are asymptomatic and have no symptoms; the diagnosis is made incidentally during an electrocardiogram made systematic basis.
Unfortunately, the FA can be the occasion of complications such as a stroke or heart failure thrust.

With what did he not be confused with atrial fibrillation?

The sensation of palpitations should not be confused with chest pain.

Palpitations are painless while chest pain is discomfort and pain behind the breastbone. It is necessary to call the SAMU Centre 15 quickly to eliminate heart disease as a heart attack.

Furthermore, the term fibrillation can be confused with ventricular fibrillation, a heart rhythm disorder of the ventricles. This disorder is actually cardiac arrest (loss of consciousness, lack of traffic signs) that should revive within seconds by an external electric shock (eg a defibrillator).

Will it possible prevention?

As with any disease of the cardiovascular system, prevention is essential and lifestyle changes are necessary: ​​smoking cessation, regular physical activity and dietary measures.

The adherence to medication regimens is also essential, even in the absence of symptoms experienced.

Anticoagulants are treatments to take long-term and for whom education is needed: respect for dose adjustment in case of food spreads, blood tests, Signs of overdose ...
Finally, the treatments taken must be reported to all health professionals consulted dentists, anesthesiologists, nurses ... Some gestures indeed require special precautions.

When to consult?

Any sensation of palpitations should be subjected to her doctor to have an electrocardiogram.

Prevention of complications is essential even in the absence of symptoms. Emergency consultation is necessary.

What does the doctor during atrial fibrillation?

The doctor confirms the diagnosis of atrial fibrillation and especially research into causes.

Clinical examination can already highlight some symptoms such as shortness of breath, discomfort or signs of complications.
The electrocardiogram is the key consideration as it shows signs of uncontrolled contractions of the atria. Emergency hospitalization is sometimes necessary.

Others called paraclinical examinations are performed: blood test (blood sugar, kidney function, thyroid function with TSH, coagulation profile), echocardiography, chest X-ray ...

Treatment of atrial fibrillation is based on two pillars: preventing thromboembolism with anticoagulants (vitamin K antagonists in most cases), and treating arrhythmia (slowing of heart rate with drugs or electrical shock called cardioversion).

How to prepare for my next visit?


Treatment with anticoagulants require close monitoring by a monitoring book based on blood tests (target INR). Any sign of overdose (bleeding brushing teeth, bruises ...) is a warning sign between consultations.
Violent sports and activities with risk of strokes or cuts (DIY ...) should be avoided.

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