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Free Information: All you need to know about Zika Virus Disease

Zika virus disease 

key facts

  • The Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes.
  • Affected individuals may have a mild fever, rash (rash), conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise or headache. These symptoms usually disappear within 2 to 7 days.
  • A scientific consensus has to say that Zika virus is causing cases of microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Links with other neurological complications are being investigated. 


Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes and was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys, through a monitoring network of jungle yellow fever. It was then identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Zika virus disease outbreaks have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific.
From the 1960s to 1980, human infections have been observed in Africa and Asia, accompanied usually mild symptoms. The first major outbreak of Zika virus disease was notified on the island of Yap (FSM) in 2007. In July 2015, Brazil reported a link between Zika virus infection and Guillain syndrome Closed off. In October 2015, he also noted the link with microcephaly.

Signs and symptoms

We do not know very well the incubation period (the time from exposure to onset of symptoms), but is probably a few days. The symptoms resemble those of other arboviruses such as dengue and include fever, rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise and headache. They are generally mild and disappear within 2-7 days.

Complications of Zika virus disease

After a comprehensive review of available data, a scientific consensus has to say that Zika virus is the cause of microcephaly and cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Intense efforts are continuing to study, within a framework of rigorous research, the link between this virus and a number of neurological disorders.


Zika virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, primarily Aedes aegypti, in the tropics. These mosquitoes bite during the day in general, with a peak of activity in the early morning and in late afternoon and early evening.
These mosquitoes also transmit dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. Zika virus transmission through sex is also possible. We are currently investigating other routes of transmission, blood transfusions, for example.


One suspects the Zika virus infection based on the symptoms and recent travel history (eg the fact of living in an area where we know that the virus is present or for going there). Diagnosis can be confirmed by laboratory analysis of blood or other body fluids, such as urine, saliva or semen.


The Zika virus disease is usually relatively mild and requires no specific treatment. Affected individuals need much rest, drink enough and take common drugs against pain and fever. If symptoms worsen, they should visit a doctor. There is currently no vaccine.


Mosquito bites
Protection against mosquito bites is an essential measure for the prevention of Zika virus infection.
To achieve this, we can apply repellents, wear clothing (preferably light colored) covering as much as possible the body, install physical barriers such as insect screens, close doors and windows, sleeping under mosquito nets, and using repellents containing DEET, IR3535 or the icaridin following the instructions on the product label.
Particular attention should be paid to those who may not be able to protect themselves effectively, such as young children, the sick or the elderly. Travelers and people living in affected areas should take basic precautions described above to protect themselves from mosquitoes
It is also important to empty or clean all potential breeding (nesting) mosquitoes as buckets, cans, flower pots, gutters or old tires. Communities need to support the efforts of local authorities to reduce mosquito density in their locality. Health authorities can also advise to make insecticide sprays.

sexual transmission

Zika virus can be transmitted through sexual intercourse. It is a worrying fact because of the association between Zika virus infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes or adverse fetal outcomes.
In active transmission areas of Zika virus, everyone infected with HIV and their sexual partners (especially pregnant women) should be informed of the risks of sexual transmission.
WHO recommends properly advise men and sexually active women and give them access to a full range of contraceptive methods so that they can make an informed choice about whether to conceive a child and when to do it, to avoid any adverse pregnancy outcome or adverse fetal outcomes.
Women who have had unprotected sex and do not want to get pregnant for fear of Zika virus infection must have easy access to emergency contraception and counseling services associated. Pregnant women should practice safer sex (including through the correct use and consistent condom) or abstain from any report for at least the duration of their pregnancy.
In areas without active transmission Zika, WHO recommends that men and women who traveled in areas of active transmission of having safe sex or abstain from any report for 6 months to avoid spread infection through sexual intercourse. Sexual partners of pregnant women who live or have traveled to areas where the Zika virus spreads locally must have safe sex or abstain from any report throughout pregnancy.

WHO action

WHO helps countries to stem the Zika virus disease by applying the measures outlined in the Strategic Response Framework:
  • define the necessary research on the Zika virus disease and establish a priority on bringing together experts and partners;
  • strengthen surveillance of Zika virus and potential complications;
  • strengthen communication skills concerning risks to engage communities to better understand the risks associated with the Zika virus;
  • strengthen the capacity of laboratories to detect the virus;
  • help health authorities to implement vector control strategies to reduce populations of Aedes mosquitoes;
  • prepare recommendations for clinical care and monitoring of people with complications Zika virus, in collaboration with experts and other organizations working in the health field.

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How to control high blood pressure immediately without medicine

Definition of hypertension

High blood pressure (or hypertension) is defined by the elevation of the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of arteries. This blood pressure is characterized by two numbers (eg 130/70), the first (maximum) corresponding to contemporary pressure of cardiac contraction (systolic) and the second (minimum) is the heart relaxation in pressure between beats 2 ( diastolic). The unit of measurement is millimeters of mercury (mmHg) (or sometimes mercury cm: 140/70 mmHg = 14/7 cm Hg).

Hypertension is defined by numbers of higher blood pressure 140/90 mmHg or equal measured lying after several minutes of rest repeatedly by a cuff placed around the arm and connected to a mechanical or electronic manometer.

Risks and Complications of Hypertension

In the short term, sudden high blood pressure may be responsible for acute pain organs such as the brain (Stroke, hypertensive encephalitis), kidney (acute renal failure) or the heart (heart failure, acute coronary insufficiency ).

However most of the consequences of high blood pressure are long-term, linked to changes for several years at low noise of hypertension unsupported. The blood pressure will be liable for damages on all the arteries of the body by stiffening and onset or worsening of atherosclerosis.

This is particularly true for brain arteries (responsible stroke brain stroke), heart (responsible for myocardial infarction and heart failure), and kidney (causing chronic renal failure), but all arteries are affected including the legs (peripheral arterial disease). The achievement of all of the arteries and the heart is called cardiovascular disease is the second cause of death with 150 000 deaths per year (2011) after cancer.

The consequences of high blood pressure are all the more rapid and severe that it is significant (higher numbers) and that it is associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, high cholesterol ( LDL), smoking, obesity and lack of physical exercise. Age, male gender and personal and family history of cardiovascular disease are also risk factors.

The causes of high blood pressure

In the vast majority of cases, high blood pressure is called "essential" that is to say that no cause is found. However, several risk factors for arterial hypertension are known as overweight, lack of physical activity or diet, particularly excess salt and diabetes mellitus.

In about 10% of cases, hypertension may be secondary to another disease. It may be a kidney disease and / renal artery (stenosis), adrenal or hormonal diseases.
Exceptionally high blood pressure may be linked to a single genetic mutation family.

Symptoms of high blood pressure

Hypertension is often "silent" that is to say, it is not accompanied by any symptoms. Thus more than half of adults with hypertension do not know. This is a serious factor because during the time that high blood pressure develops, it continues its deleterious effects on the arteries and heart.

When hypertension is severe and / or sudden, it may be accompanied by headache, nausea with or without vomiting, nosebleed. Black spots or white flashes can occur in vision.
The reference method for measuring blood pressure is taken after several minutes of rest, lying down, taking the armband, the 2 arms. Currently the electronic measurement is favored at home and in the office, preferably with an arm device validated rather than wrist (SFHTA 2011). Several successive measurements of blood pressure are necessary for diagnosis of hypertension.

Blood pressure varies throughout the day, it may be useful to obtain a measure covering a wider time so as to better reflect the stresses exerted on the arteries. For this, it is possible to achieve a measure of blood pressure over 24 hours (Holter blood pressure) or standardized way several times a day (MAPA: Automated Measurement of Blood Pressure).

With what does he not be confused with high blood pressure?
Blood pressure may exceed the limit of 140/90 mm ​​of mercury from time to time, for example because of the emotion that causes the consultation (high blood pressure so-called "white coat"). To make sense of things, the doctor may ask the patient to take his blood pressure at home, thanks to a self-measurement electronic device.

In hypertension "white coat", blood pressure falls below 135/85 mmHg at home. A home is recommended, sitting, three measurements in the morning at breakfast, three measurements in the evening before bedtime, three days in a row (rule 3). The measurements are spaced a few minutes (2011 recommendations of the Society of Hypertension).

It may overestimate blood pressure in obese people. We must then verify with a suitable cuff.
Finally, the equipment check (blood pressure) is necessary because calibration is rarely regularly from the manufacturer. With possibly resulting in a breach of hypertension or an unfounded alert.

Are there possible prevention of hypertension?

Yes. It is to act on the factors that can be modified, that is to say, the healthy lifestyle: eat more balanced, limit salt intake, fat and alcohol, engage in an activity regular physical, weight control, stop smoking.

These good habits are essential for those who have a genetic predisposition to hypertension, that is to say, those whose father and / or mother have high blood pressure, especially if she appeared before the age of 50 years

 When to consult?

Given the usual lack of symptoms of hypertension, it should be systematically search each medical and regularly after 50 years.
In the presence of the symptoms mentioned above, it is necessary to consult promptly their physician to develop a rapid and appropriate treatment.

What is the doctor?
The first "treatment" of arterial hypertension is that of the management of hypertension risk factors. This includes moderate in salt consumption, no smoking, a diet low in fat, regular physical activity and diabetes control if necessary.

The application of these rules before the onset of high blood pressure can prevent or delay the HTA.
If these lifestyle and dietary rules are insufficient, it is necessary to use antihypertensive therapy. Several classes of antihypertensive medications exist. These classes should be mentioned diuretics that help eliminate salt by action on the kidneys, beta blockers that slow heart rate, calcium channel blockers that increase the caliber of the arteries, and IEC ARA2 blocking a system increasing blood pressure and finally the central antihypertensives playing on the dilation of blood vessels.
These classes can be combined to get a better blood pressure control.

Hypertension: essential
- Chronic disease very common and frequency increases with age
- Purveyor of serious cardiovascular disease complications: stroke, heart attack, heart and kidney failure, ...
- Cardiovascular disease = 2nd cause of death (150,000 / year)
- Silent disease, often goes unnoticed: the importance of routine screening
- Risk factors and progression of hypertension: Smoking, diabetes mellitus, excessive salt intake, high cholesterol, lack of exercise, overweight
- No cause found in most cases: essential hypertension.
- Treatment: involves correcting +++ risk factors and if insufficient antihypertensive treatment.
- The importance of prevention of hypertension: management of risk factors prior to the onset of hypertension
- Antihypertensive: several classes of drugs that can be combined to achieve proper blood pressure control.
- Voltage Monitoring is essential: in the office and at home with a self-measurement.

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Cold Sores Definition, Treatment, Remedies, Causes, Symptoms and Prevention

Definition of herpes labialis

Herpes labialis is also called cold sore. This is the most common form of the herpes. It is caused by a virus (Herpes simplex virus type 1 or HSV-1) and is characterized by lesions of the oral region, preceded burns. Certain circumstances (fever, stress, fatigue ...) trigger recurrence and outbreaks of cold sores because the virus, once in the body, stays there for life.

Risks and consequences of herpes labialis

The forms of cold sores affecting the mouth and face are the most common, with infection typically occurring in childhood or in young adults. Between the ages of 20 and 40 years, 40-60% of the population would infected with HSV1. The HSV1 is responsible for a significant share of herpes especially among women. One of the major risks is the primary infection, that is to say the genital HSV1 infection during pregnancy, with consequences Infectious dramatic in newborns.

Causes and mechanisms of cold sores

The development of herpes labialis requires two phases:

Herpes primary infection phase

The primary herpetic infection phase infects cells of the skin or mucosa after direct contact with lesions (vesicles) shedding of the virus; This excretion is maximum in the first hours of vesicle formation. Excretion occurs at the time of primary infection, extensive

A phase reactivation or recurrence

There are also equally contaminating asymptomatic shedding. The virus multiplies and infects other cells. It can lie dormant for many years and reactivate with more or less significant symptoms (burning, itching, lesions ...).

Two types of virus are involved, but HSV1 is most often responsible for cold sores.

Symptoms of cold sores

Primary infection is rarely spotted, symptoms occurring most often in childhood or in young adults. It occurs a few days after contact with a person carrying the virus excretory lesions. Sometimes this primary infection is symptomatic and is manifested by a lesion in the lips accompanied by fever, swollen glands (pain, diet discomfort) or flu symptoms. Symptoms, including the feeding difficulty, must be taken seriously in children because they expose to dehydration.

Recurrences or cold sore outbreaks occur during many triggers fever, sun exposure, fatigue, rules, stress ...
The cold sore then manifested by the appearance of vesicles in clusters, often preceded by localized burning or itching on the outer edge of a lip. The cold sore can also affect the nose, chin or expand in the region of the mouth.

With what he does not confuse cold sores?

Scratching damage may cause similar superinfection impetigo (contagious infection of the skin). The lesions can then expand and autoentretenir with scabs and pus.

In case of persistent injury beyond a few days (7-10 days), medical consultation (attending physician or dermatologist) is required.

Does it possible to prevent cold sores?

Initial infection with HSV1 is most often during childhood, making it difficult to prevent contamination. It is nevertheless necessary to avoid kissing someone who has a cold sore and avoid using objects in direct contact with saliva or mouth.

Once contaminated, simple measures can limit outbreaks, avoid contamination or autocontamination and reduce symptoms.

Some circumstances favor outbreaks such as fever, stress, fatigue, alcohol, sun exposure (UV) or cold.
In return period, avoid direct contact between the vesicles and others (kisses), including those at risk such as infants, pregnant women and anyone with immune deficiency or atopic dermatitis (risk of serious complication). To avoid autocontamination, do not touch the blisters, do not rub your eyes or moisten the lenses with the saliva; it must instead wash hands regularly.

Applying an ice cube on the cold sore reduces the burning sensation or itching. Furthermore, the antiviral creams available in pharmacies are to be implemented at the first symptoms before the blisters appear.

When to consult?

Herpesvirus infections may be symptom-free or discreet: only a routine screening will put in evidence.
Cold sores are common and only a serious primary infection (infants, pregnant women, immunocompromised ...) is a therapeutic emergency.

What does the doctor?

If lesions (primary infection or recurrence), the doctor can visually establish a presumptive diagnosis. When in doubt or confirm the diagnosis, a blood test and / or a sampling of blisters or lesions with a swab, used to verify the presence of the virus. This diagnosis Direct virological is recommended that in case of damage atypical or before complications.

No treatment cure herpes, but antiviral drugs (local and systemic) can accelerate the cure of a herpes outbreak in some patients. The doctor or pharmacist will judge the appropriateness of prescribing during a flare or even long-term, prevention with frequent recurrences and disabling.

How to prepare my next appointment?

Do not hesitate to prepare a list of questions to avoid forgetting the D-Day Note the number of outbreaks and contributing factors: your doctor may help you and sometimes prescribe antivirals preventively.

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Genital Herpes Definition, Risks, Symptoms, Prevention and Consult Doctor

Definition of genital herpes

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease or STD that is transmitted during vaginal sex, anal or buccogénital. Genital herpes is caused by viruses called herpes simplex virus (HSV) in which there are two types (HSV1 and HSV2). This virus affects the mucous membranes and skin, causing mostly benign manifestations. Some forms of herpes can be severe and widespread in frail patients (newborns, pregnant women, immunocompromised). Once the virus contracted genital herpes, there is life in the body and symptoms may appear periodically: this is called "herpes outbreaks."

Risks and consequences of genital herpes

Genital herpes now affects 2 million people in France. The impact on the sexual life and quality of life can be important when extensive or frequent recurrences (four to five outbreaks a year). In addition, herpes lesions favor the transmission of other sexually transmitted diseases. The health challenge is to minimize the transmission of genital herpes.

Women are the first victims of genital herpes which 60-80% of cases are related to the HSV2 virus.

Symptoms and origins of genital herpes

The development of genital herpes requires two phases:

The primary herpetic infection phase

This phase infects cells of the skin or mucosa after sexual contact, for example. The virus replicates and infects other cells.

The reactivation phase or recurrence

The virus can remain dormant for many years and reactivate with more or less significant symptoms (burning, itching, lesions ...).

Two types of virus are involved, but HSV2 is usually responsible for genital herpes, while HSV-1 is found in the herpes labialis infections or "cold sore".

What are the symptoms of genital herpes?

The symptoms of genital herpes vary from one person to another. The primary infection may be asymptomatic (no symptoms) or be accompanied by signs such as pain or itching before the appearance of lesions. Lesions are in the region of the vagina, anus or penis and begin with a rash with vesicles (small transparent bubbles).

Subsequent outbreaks occur at varying rates but can be disabling. The symptoms are the same as those of the initial thrust and last 7 to 10 days. A tingling sensation may precede the rash.

With what he does not confuse genital herpes?

The cold sore or fever blister is associated with a virus from the same family, the HSV1. However, both viruses can indifferently achieve the genitals (genital herpes) and the face (herpes labialis). Thus, a patient with a cold sore may well infect her partner during a buccogénital sex.
Other causes of genital ulcers or lesions require medical care: any genital lesion so requires consultation and diagnosis (syphilis, HPV ...).

Does it possible to prevent genital herpes?

The only prevention is to avoid transmission of the virus. We must therefore abstain from genital sex, anal or oral sex with someone who has lesions, as they are not completely healed. Condom use does not completely protect the transmission of the virus (all contaminating areas are not covered). There is no vaccine against the virus of genital herpes.

If herpes outbreak with lesions and blisters, some steps may decrease or relieve symptoms: dry the affected areas, wear loose clothing, avoid touching the lesions and hand washing in all cases, not apply ointments without medical advice ...

When to consult?

Herpesvirus infections may be symptom-free or discreet: only a routine screening will put in evidence.
In general, any occurrence of genital warts or lesions should motivate a consultation with a doctor or dermatologist.

What does the doctor?

If lesions (primary infection or recurrence), the doctor can visually establish a presumptive diagnosis. When in doubt or confirm the diagnosis, blood tests and / or removal of lesions or vesicles with a swab, used to verify the presence of HSV1 or HSV2.

No treatment cure herpes, but antiviral drugs (local and systemic) can accelerate the cure of a herpes outbreak in some patients. The doctor will decide whether to prescribe or during a flare, long-term, prevention of relapses in patients with frequent recurrences and disabling.
The physician's role is also to support the pain, evaluating the triggering factors or circumstances suggest a psychological care if necessary and then recommend measures to reduce transmission (condom use during flare-ups in particular).

How to prepare my next appointment?

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Herniated Disc Definition, Causes and mechanisms, Symptoms and signs

Definition of herniated disc

The herniated disc is an anatomical mechanism. Herniated disk in fact corresponds to the output of the disc located between the vertebrae of the spine.

Protruding outside its casing, the disc can compress the nerve roots and trigger eg vector sciatica. Thus, the herniated disc is often less known than its main symptom of sciatica.

All regions of the back can be involved, but the lumbar region (lower back) is widely the most affected.

Origins of herniated disks

Disc herniation is common in young subjects between 30 and 40 years.

Some postures like sitting position (drivers ...) or carrying heavy loads (snap-action, wrong move ...) favor herniated discs.

The age or trauma also accelerate aging of the disc and hernia.
Some risk factors are also identified to promote herniated disc: This is overweight and pregnancy. Genetic predisposition may also exist in some families; herniated discs while generally occur earlier than in the general population.

Causes and mechanisms of a herniated disc

The spine or vertebral spine is formed of a stack of vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs.

In case of overweight, improper movement or simply degeneration, this gelatinous disc can deform and break its protective bag. It then projects and forms the herniated disc.

A herniated disc can be asymptomatic if it compresses any nerve.
On the contrary, it can cause inflammation and pain if it compresses certain nerve roots (sciatica or femoral).

Symptoms and signs of a herniated disc
A herniated disc can long remain asymptomatic and cause no discomfort. In favor of a motion or time, it may be in pain, simple backache to the paralyzing sciatica.

These symptoms can appear suddenly and disappear or persist chronically.
Some triggers are often found, such as coughing, laughing or sneezing by increased abdominal pressure or forward leaning position.

The most common disc herniations are located in the lower back, with back pain and leg. The simple "back pain" is called low back pain, while pain that goes down the leg below the knee and is called sciatica or femoral neuralgia according to the compressed nerve root.

The sciatica associates for its pain with lumbar spine pain (irradiation) in a leg.

Herniated discs are possible in the cervical spine (neck area) and then cause arm pain spreading to the fingers.

With what should we be confused herniated discs?
It initially not confuse the word "hiatal hernia" and "herniated disc".

Hiatal hernia is a digestive disease which corresponds to the passage of a portion of the stomach above the diaphragm.

Furthermore, the pains of sciatica or back pain should not be confused with pain caused by another disease such as renal colic. Renal colic (kidney stones) also causes pain starting from the lower back and radiating to the front (towards the external genitalia).

Conducting a dipstick (or urinalysis) will usually very quickly diagnosis.

Will it possible to prevent slipped discs?
Simple lifestyle tips to prevent or limit the consequences of a protrusion or herniated disc.

This is to exercise regularly, to warm up before starting an effort to maintain and ensure a satisfactory abdominal and dorsal (support the spine).

Overweight should be avoided as much as possible by a balanced diet.
Gestures and postures are fundamental steps of prevention:

straight back, straight look, squat by bending the knees to lift a load, rest periods to stretch and stretch when sitting, straight-backed chairs and if possible swivel to avoid torsion.

The backpacks port is preferred to handbags and high heels (above 5 cm) are not recommended.

In addition to these tips and if proven herniated disc, you should not look too far forward or to make efforts (charging port ...).

Some simple exercises improve symptoms (on the back, bring knees to chest ...): consult your doctor.

Weight loss will also be beneficial.

When to consult?
In case of pain in the back or sciatic pain, signs must be warning signs and motivate emergency consultation.

This is the loss of strength (motor deficit) in one leg or paralysis (inability to take off the foot), difficulty urinating or bowel movement or otherwise of incontinence.
This is called medical emergencies which can sometimes require surgery to decompress the nerve roots crushed by the herniated disk.
Similarly, the unbearable pain despite treatment constitutes an emergency.

What is the doctor?
The doctor looks for certain signs suggestive of the original disc pain: increased cough, pain in the leg elevation (Lasegue), pain in the leg pressure between two vertebrae ...

The examination will specify the triggering circumstances (effort, wrong moves ...) and a complete neurological examination eliminate paralysis or complication.

Additional tests such as radiography of the spine or lumbar spine CT (or a magnetic resonance imaging or MRI) may be prescribed and confirm the presence of disc herniation (conflict between the disc and the nerve root). They are not systematic in front of a classic sciatica.

Treatment aims to relieve pain by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, drugs against pain and muscle relaxants. The local injection of anti-inflammatory corticosteroid is also possible in case of failure of the first treatment.

Strict bed rest is usually offered for one or two days maximum, as it promotes muscle weakening back.

The prescription of physical therapy is also beneficial, especially to prevent recurrences.
Lumbar restraint belts are useful and help to keep activity during treatment.
Radical treatment is offered in second-line in case of failure of medical treatment. Two techniques are possible: surgically remove the disc or dissolve.

How to prepare my next appointment?
It is desirable to distinguish circumstances or movements that trigger pain. In fact, your doctor or physical therapist can offer the amenities of position or posture.

At work, the occupational physician can also help you in terms of ergonomics.

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Viral Hepatitis Definition, Causes and symptoms, treatment, diagnosis

Definition of viral hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is an infection that mainly affects the liver and causing inflammatory lesions.

Six viruses cause hepatitis: viruses A, B, C, D, E and G. There is talk of hepatitis "acute" during the invasion phase of the organism by the virus; we speak of "chronic" hepatitis as the disease persists beyond six months after infection. Hepatitis B, C and D can become chronic hepatitis, which makes dangerousness.

Risks and health challenges of viral hepatitis

The three most common viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, B and C. Hepatitis A is usually mild and heal in 10 to 15 days. However, hepatitis B and C are more serious as they can become chronic and develop into cirrhosis and liver cancer.
280,000 people (0.65% of the adult population) are chronic carriers of hepatitis B. For hepatitis C, 180 million people are infected with the virus worldwide, of which 500 000 a 650 000.

Causes and Symptoms of viral hepatitis

Hepatitis is transmitted by viruses. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is transmitted through the digestive tract (fecal-oral) and primarily affects young adult or child. It is eliminated by the stool and do not persist chronically in the body.
Viral hepatitis B is consecutive in turn to infection by the hepatitis B virus (HBV); its transmission is through contact with bodily fluids of infected persons (unprotected sex, prick or cut with blood transmission during pregnancy ...).

The infection heals spontaneously in most cases but can sometimes remain in the body: People are then carry the virus without showing symptoms, while others have a progressive chronic hepatitis.

The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted by blood, primarily by use of intravenous drugs. Spontaneous cure of hepatitis C is rare (20% of cases) and the infection becomes chronic in most patients.

How manifest viral hepatitis?

Acute hepatitis manifested by symptoms that are common to all hepatitis. They may first be asymptomatic; their diagnosis will be made after the event on serology. Otherwise fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain (under the right ribs in the liver) dominate. The appearance of dark urine and jaundice are characteristic of hepatitis. Very severe cases may even lead to liver transplant exist: it is fulminant hepatitis with rapid destruction of the liver.
In hepatitis A, the illness resolves spontaneously without the risk of chronicity. In hepatitis B and C, the change can be made ​​to chronicity that will be diagnosed by blood tests. Cirrhosis and liver cancer are then two formidable complications.

With what should we be confused?

It initially be confused hepatitis viruses among themselves. Hepatitis A is a mild disease which does not have the risk of becoming chronic.
All hepatitis are not infectious and viral; certain liver injury has a drug issue, alcoholic or immune.
Finally, it should not be confused jaundice and hepatitis. Jaundice reflects the poor liver function. Other diseases are responsible as gallstones, Gilbert's disease (hereditary anomaly) or anemia.

Will it possible prevention?

Prevention is essential and differs between the relevant virus.
For hepatitis A, it is based primarily on hygiene: hand washing, food washing, not sharing cutlery and utensils ... A vaccination is recommended for the traveler who had no history of hepatitis A (unimmunized) and traveling in heavily contaminated areas.

For hepatitis B, the preventive measures are many. The condom use is essential during sex with a partner or unknown HIV status; gloves for health professionals is essential. Screening for hepatitis B is also mandatory in case of pregnancy or when giving blood.
Vaccination is widely proposed, for professional or non-professional. Only a history of neurological disease like multiple sclerosis indicate that vaccination-against.

Hepatitis C finally the sharing of injection equipment among drug users is prohibited. The posttransfusionnelles contamination have now become exceptional because all blood donations are screened and treated.

When to consult?

Any fatigue, jaundice or unexplained persistent symptoms should motivate a medical consultation to make a diagnosis. Some forms of hepatitis may represent genuine emergencies: the liver is destroyed and can not perform its functions. Coagulation disorders and impaired consciousness (encephalopathy) lead to death within hours if no treatment is established.
Screening for hepatitis B and C, even in the absence of symptoms, is in any way significant.

What is the doctor?

The doctor can only suspect hepatitis. It will look for arguments in favor of a mode of transmission (drug use, sex ...) The clinical examination is not specific for hepatitis. In case of abdominal pain, palpation find a pain in the right upper quadrant abdomen; haemorrhagic signs are detected and are a sign of seriousness.

The diagnosis is often made ​​after a blood test reveals elevated liver enzymes, transaminases (up to 20 to 40 times normal). Coagulation is also tested and can be collapsed in severe hepatitis. The key consideration is the serology of hepatitis. Antibodies against viruses A, B and C are most often requested. These antibodies require a delay before they appear; several blood tests are sometimes necessary.

In cases of hepatitis A, no further action is usually required. However, in the case of hepatitis B or C, regular blood tests or examinations as the liver biopsy will be proposed to ensure that hepatitis does not become chronic and active. In this case, the treatments involved in interferon as antiviral for example.

How to prepare my next appointment?

Even in the absence of symptoms after acute hepatitis B or C, it is essential to respect the prescribed blood tests. Only early detection and treatment will prevent the dreaded complications.

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Toxic Hepatitis definition, treatment, diagnosis, diet, recovery, symptoms, causes

Definition of toxic hepatitis

Toxic hepatitis, like all hepatitis, means any inflammatory disease of the liver. Toxic hepatitis is related to drugs, alcohol consumption or toxic products or food (plants, mushrooms ...). Some exposure to solvents or other substances may occur in the workplace and also cause acute or chronic hepatitis of toxic origin.
Hepatitis toxic, such as viral hepatitis can progress to fulminant form and death.

Risks and challenges of toxic hepatitis

Alcohol is the # 1 cause of toxic hepatitis. One of the most common causes also toxic hepatitis is drug-induced hepatitis with about 1,000 drugs known to be potentially hepatotoxic. The toxicity depends on several factors such as genetics, diet, age ... Certain medications are only revealed toxic to the liver after they are placed on the market; some have been withdrawn due to the frequency and severity of this side effect.

Toxic hepatitis occurring in the workplace are part of the framework of occupational diseases; the most dangerous products have been replaced by less toxic products. However, vigilance is needed to reintroduce new substances.

Causes and Symptoms of toxic hepatitis

Whatever the mechanism involved, severe hepatitis can lead to liver destruction and unless liver transplantation, death.
The product absorbed, inhaled or ingested, can be toxic by itself or its metabolites in the body after conversion. Moreover, some products can cause hepatitis in an individual and not in another, we speak of interindividual variability.
Among the implicated drugs include acetaminophen, which can cause injury from 6-8 g that can become irreversible or death beyond 12 g.
Alongside these drug-induced hepatitis, toxic hepatitis related to fungi like Amanita phalloides. This releases a poisonous mushroom liver damage toxin responsible; its mortality is 15%.

How manifest toxic hepatitis?
Acute hepatitis, toxic or not, manifested by nonspecific symptoms of the cause, but may first be asymptomatic. Otherwise, fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain (under the right ribs in the liver) dominate. The appearance of dark urine and jaundice is characteristic of hepatitis. Very severe cases may even lead to liver transplant exist: it is fulminant hepatitis with rapid destruction of the liver.

Unlike viral hepatitis there are no signs of infection, and toxic cause is strongly suspected in the concomitant symptoms with the consumption of a drug or a fungus. The time to onset of symptoms is also variable: a few hours for fungi up to several days for toxic drugs or other.

Phalloïdien The syndrome is characteristic of poisoning by mushrooms (Amanita phalloides, Amanita Verna, Amanita virosa ...). Symptoms include diarrhea and dehydration in benign forms and an array of sometimes severe acute hepatitis with confusion, bleeding ...

With what should we be confused?

Toxic hepatitis should not be confused with viral hepatitis, which are viral infections. In addition, any symptoms occur after taking the drug or fungus is not synonymous with hepatitis. Allergies, gastroenteritis or simple mundane intoxications are fortunately more common than liver disease. The doctor will make a difference in particular based on blood tests.

Will it possible prevention?

Toxic hepatitis is associated with exposure to a toxic, the best prevention is the non-exposure to this toxic. The alcoholic abstinence is therefore essential; at least, consumption should be moderate.

Strict adherence to drug regimens can prevent drug-induced hepatitis dose-dependent.

For mushrooms, it is better not to consume those collected without being sure of their safety. Your pharmacist can help you in this regard, provided picking mushrooms in their entirety (foot base). Avoid storing them in plastic bags (rotting), separate the poisonous mushroom species that does not come contaminate edible, eat in moderation and any uncertainty, do not consume.

When to consult?

If symptoms following ingestion of mushrooms, it is imperative to consult quickly. Life support measures are sometimes necessary. Similarly, in case of accidental or intentional overdose drug, call the SAMU Centre 15, itself interconnected with the Poison Control Center, is imperative.

What is the doctor?

Besides the usual clinical examination and screening for signs of gravity requiring immediate hospitalization, the doctor will try to reconstruct the history of the disease symptoms to relate to taking medication or exposure to toxic (taking of alcohol for example). For this, the questioning is fundamental, the temporal relationship between the onset of signs and also taken.

Blood samples are generally prescribed to confirm hepatitis (transaminase elevation), judge its severity (impact on coagulation in particular) and rule out other causes, particularly for viral serology.

The first therapeutic measure is of course to stop taking the medication or exposure to toxic. Then symptomatic measures up to resuscitation will be taken. The monitoring is based on control of liver function and coagulation; sometimes the liver damage is such that only a liver transplant patient saves it.

How to prepare my next appointment?

The examination is an important step in diagnosis. Try to remember the absorbed drugs, plants or consumed mushrooms and potential contact with toxic in the last six months before the symptoms. This will help your doctor; well, tell her if others around you, family or professional, have the same problems.

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Hemorrhoids Definition, Risks, Symptoms, Signs and Prevention?

Definition of hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids (or hemorrhoidal disease) are anal conditions related to dilated veins in (called internal hemorrhoids) or around the anus (called external hemorrhoids).

The expression "having hemorrhoids" is a misnomer since everyone has anatomically hemorrhoids; in case of symptoms, we should speak of "hemorrhoidal crisis." Internal hemorrhoids (deep part of the anus) are purple and are not visible; you need a device (anoscope) to see.

Risks and health issues hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoidal disease is a common condition in adults (one in two people in life), responsible for a large number of medical consultations. The frequency is the same for both sexes, but men seem to complain earlier. This frequency increases with age with a maximum after 70 years. Some risk factors have been identified but remain controversial: alcohol, coffee, obesity ...

Causes and mechanisms of hémarroïdes

Hemorrhoids are vessels normally present at the anus. Anatomically, there are external hemorrhoids and the internal hemorrhoids, deeper.

The cause of the haemorrhoidal expansion is still unclear. Hemorrhoids often appear to support an increase in abdominal pressure (constipation ...) which interferes with venous return and lead to venous dilatation. In fact, several factors are probably involved as a relaxation of the supporting tissues related to age and / or encouraging terrain.

Symptoms and signs of hemorrhoids

The output of hemorrhoids outside the anus causes symptoms of discomfort, itching, pain and bleeding rectal called. Such bleeding are related to the erosion hemorrhoidal packets; blood is red, occurring at the end of defecation (he tries toilet paper, splashes bowl ...).

A possible complication is the local formation of a clot causing an external hemorrhoidal thrombosis most often. One then notes a bluish swelling with a more or less intense pain until elimination of the blood clot.
The other complication is related to the loss of blood and iron, which can in extreme cases lead to an iron deficiency anemia (iron deficiency).

With what should we be confused?

Rectal bleeding should not always be attributed to hemorrhoids. Other diseases such as tumors must be removed first before bleeding.

Moreover, anal fissure, ulceration thermometer, inflammatory bowel disease (colitis, proctitis ...) can also give bleeding and pain. Their treatments are specific.

Will it possible prevention?

There are no preventive measures to avoid completely the hemorrhoidal attacks. Local hygiene, without excess, and physical activity to fight against physical inactivity are recommended.

The fight against constipation is an axis of treatment with use of mucilage and / or increasing the daily intake of dietary fiber. Foods to eat are whole wheat bread, fresh fruits and vegetables, legumes (lentils, split peas), grains (oats, bran, wheat).

Alcohol and spices are good contributing factors as well as prolonged sitting: When is prone to hemorrhoids, it is best to avoid them.

The ointment application can also relieve symptoms.

When to consult?

The occurrence of bleeding from the anus should lead to a medical consultation urgently to eliminate gastrointestinal bleeding and / or tumor. If necessary, an exploration through a colonoscopy will list possible causes and to take samples.

What is the doctor?

The doctor makes the diagnosis by questioning and clinical examination. The latter includes an examination of the anus and, if possible, a digital rectal examination.

The doctor may refer you to a specialist colleague (proctologist, gastroenterologist) for additional tests: Anoscopy explores the anus, proctosigmoidoscopy back in the digestive tract (rectum, sigmoid) and colonoscopy shows almost full. A blood test may help verify the absence of anemia.

The proposed treatments for hemorrhoids are of three types: medical, surgical and instrumental. The effectiveness of drugs is controversial veinotonic; correction of bowel dysfunction (fight against constipation or diarrhea), however, is unanimously recognized.

The drugs against pain (analgesics) are effective on pain of internal and external hemorrhoidal thrombosis, as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory.

Instrumental techniques (coagulation) are reserved for surgical or medical treatment failures.
If thrombosis, incision under local anesthesia relieves symptoms.

How to prepare my next appointment?

Identify triggers or relieve seizures allows to establish appropriate therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, hemorrhoids can manifest as prolapse (externalization) Intermittent: note the frequency of prolapse.

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Hemochromatosis type 1 Definition, Signs & Symptoms, health issues, Prevention, Causes and mechanisms

Definition of hemochromatosis

The type 1 hemochromatosis is an iron overload in the body by increasing the intestinal absorption of dietary iron. It is an autosomal recessive genetic disease, by mutation of the HFE gene that regulates the digestive transfer of dietary iron.

It is often misunderstood and is revealed mostly belatedly after 40 years first in men. In women, menstruation (menses) limit the expression of the disease until menopause.

It is not present in the black African populations nor the populations of Southeast Asia; but that can change with the global mixing.

Symptoms and health issues of hemochromatosis

The frequency of the disease is estimated in Western and Northern Europe to a patient for 200 or 300 people; it's a lot and uncertain because most patients are unaware that they are achieved. The figures are hypothetical, because of late diagnosis, or not at all when the expression of the disease is low.

However the length and quality of life of untreated patients is reduced because of:

Involvement of the liver first

- Cirrhosis, which can lead to cancer, especially if there are risk co-factors (chronic hepatitis B or C, chronic alcoholism ...)

The achievement of the pancreas in addition to the liver

- Diabetes increased by the usual risk factors (dietary imbalance, physical inactivity)

Involvement of the heart

- Heart failure and arrhythmias

The achievement of the sex glands

- Subfertility and sexual dysfunction (impotence)

The achievement of the skin

- The skin complexion is a metal "bronze" grayish.

Joint involvement

- These disorders are early and often related to its true cause, the source of pain and disability in everyday life.

Causes and mechanisms of hemochromatosis

This autosomal recessive hereditary disease is almost always caused by a mutation of the HFE gene, which produces hepcidin, a hormone regulating the digestive absorption of iron.

A so-called C282Y mutation affects almost 100% of cases and 70 to 95% of European patients. Obvious patients are usually carrying a double mutation C282Y: 6 came on the chromosome of their father and on chromosome 6 came from their mother. They are called homozygous for the mutation.
Holders of a single mutation in one of their two chromosomes 6 are called heterozygous; they have little or no suffering, so even less often diagnosed.

Penetrance of the mutation (expression) is very variable, so its gravity; severe cases are rare in practice.
But as the mutation is common in the general population (5 to 10% of heterozygous mutations), the risk that a man and a woman have children together with is great.

Normally, only 5 to 10% of dietary iron is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, or 1 mg / day roughly corresponding to the daily losses (one liter of blood contains 500 mg of iron). Hepcidin limits this iron entrance.

In his absence, the absorption increases freely. Among adolescent women, the menstrual blood flow more or less correct this increase in gastrointestinal absorption. This correction disappears at menopause.

What are the signs of the disease?

The accumulation of iron in the body first saturates the liver which is the natural reserve of iron, then the pancreas.

Iron deposits in joints cause chronic pain.

The muscles are in turn achieved, including the heart muscle. This explains heart failure and chronic fatigue hemochromatosis.

Unfortunately for them, in the absence of correct diagnosis on their prescribed iron and vitamins, including vitamin C, to "get back"; or vitamin C increases the absorption of iron, which is itself in excess. Therefore aggravates poisoning wanting to do well.

One cause paradoxical and known as hemochromatosis is iron supplementation in anemic or blood transfusions from undiagnosed patients.

The disease is labeled in four stages of increasing severity: I, II, III and IV, as the importance of achieving organs: liver, pancreas, heart, sex glands, muscles, joints ...

    In Stage 1, shows no sign of disease, even blood tests are normal. This is the stage of young patients before 15-20 years. Women do not express the disease or rarely before menopause.
    In stage II, the disease is still not visible but the blood abnormalities are present from 20 years. One of the first signs is the painful joint handshake.
    In stage III, blood abnormalities are revealed during a balance sheet to the signs of the disease appear around age 30 in men later in women:
    asthenia (fatigue) chronic joint pain and inflammation, liver cirrhosis, heart disease or sexual dysfunction (impotence).
    Stage IV is the stage where the achievement of various organs is clear and irreversible, usually after 40 years later in women.

With what should we be confused?

    Rheumatic fever as gout or chondrocalcinosis; especially as the joint symptoms of hemochromatosis occur more around 40 years and think rather to the "joint aging" as a former chronic disease.
    The liver damage from alcohol or viral hepatitis may unduly disrupt explorations when the doctor is satisfied with this explanation. Or there may be excessive alcohol and hemochromatosis, given its frequency in the population.
    Take diabetes for hemochromatosis for general overhead while diabetes is an iron overload.

Will it possible prevention of type 1 hemochromatosis?

Because of the frequency of this genetic disease in the population, routine screening is feasible in the population, at birth or later after 40 years when the disease clearly revealed. However, this option was not chosen until now.

It is therefore the opportunity during a family survey around a diagnosed cases.
In heterozygous people, almost not affected, dietary advice may be sufficient to scarce bloodletting.

When to see the doctor?

In case of permanent fatigue and joint pain, and whenever we know or doubt of a close family member that would be achieved.
It is important to make the diagnosis early because the treatment is not effective when the organs are damaged, that is to say, in stage III and IV.

What does the doctor?

It conducts a complete physical examination, seeking joint damage characteristic of hands and liver and heart damage, which are the most urgent to know.

A battery of tests done things in perspective. But only two tests are needed to diagnose the disease in a non-inflammatory context:

    the transferrin saturation, if hemochromatosis is the early stage (I)
    and ferritin levels in the blood (serum ferritin) if the disease is already later stage (II, III or IV).

The definitive diagnosis is made ​​by genotyping the patient and the review of the HFE gene mutation involved. If he confirms the genetic disease, we proceed to a family survey (first degree relatives) with the patient's consent, to know the mutation carriers and provide support after full assessment.

For parents waiting for a child, genotyping of the parents figure the risk of transmission to the child.

Treatment is by regular bloodletting: every three months at least, every week if needed in the beginning. Possibly one resorts to iron chelators to quickly reduce intoxication.

This treatment is only effective before achieving proven organs, particularly the liver cirrhosis. Hence the importance of family to detect treatable patients inquiry quickly and avoid complications.

How to prepare the medical consultation?

By collecting family data to rule out or talk hemochromatosis, on one hand, and blood tests over time if we kept them.

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Hallux valgus (or onion) Definition, Risks, Causes and mechanisms, Symptoms

Definition of hallux valgus

Hallux valgus, often called "onion" by association is actually a deviation of the big toe of the foot outward. Frequently, the head of the first metatarsal is prominent and produces what is called the onion.

The onion can become inflammatory and autoentretient deformation: the angle of deviation increases, with repercussions on all the other toes (second toe claw, formation of a cor ...).

Pain and infection can be aggravated hallux valgus and onion.

Risks and origins of hallux valgus

5-10% would be affected by hallux valgus.

Women between 40 and 50 years are more prone to it, with pain, difficulty wearing shoes and deformation of the forefoot.

Men and children are exceptionally achieved (ratio of 1 man 30 women).
Genetic factors shape of the foot (wide forefoot or foot with a toe first feature called Egyptian foot), wearing certain shoes (heels, pointed toes ...) and finally the age and menopause promote hallux valgus and onion.

Causes and mechanisms of hallux valgus

Several factors combine to result in a distortion:

Hereditary predisposition

A hereditary predisposition made the bed of hallux valgus, with an angle between the first and second metatarsal increased.

Ill-fitting footwear

Hallux valgus is compounded by ill-fitting footwear or poor running technique.

Friction and inflammation

Friction and inflammation generated create a vault at the joint; this inflammation increases angulation and deformity.

What are the symptoms hallux valgus?

The Hallux valgus is visible by looking at his feet, the big toe is deflected outward with a fingernail located in a different axis of the other nails. The arch or swelling is the seat of inflammation at the base joint of the big toe.
The overlying skin is thickened and hardened. The skin is red, glistening from the fulcrum with the shoes.
The hallux valgus leads to a big toe that causes neighboring toes forward with an overlap of two toes: corns, blisters and thus pain are common.
Complications can also occur with toe claws, a true osteoarthritis annoying walking and infections friction areas.

With what would it be confused onion or hallux valgus?

Do not confuse foot deformities related to other causes with hallux valgus.

Indeed, paralysis, trauma or arthritis can deform the foot. An apparatus and / or rehabilitation allow to improve walking and symptoms.

Will it possible to prevent hallux valgus?

Prevention involves wearing shoes fit the foot (size, wide end and round, alternating small heels and flat shoes). The use of protective pads can help to slow the progression of an onion.
Pedicure treatments relieve and prevent the symptoms, as well as stretching exercises and massages.

Hallux valgus: when to consult?

It is advisable to consult early, before the stage of disability or complication.

At an early stage of the onion, change shoes or correct walking technique can be enough to break the vicious circle.

At a more advanced stage, the treatments will be heavier and sometimes less effective.

What does the doctor deal with an onion?
The doctor confirmed the diagnosis clinically.

It will also eliminate neurological or traumatic causes of hallux valgus. With the X-ray of the foot, angulations were measured and the impact on the entire foot visualized: the stage of hallux valgus can be determined (stages 1-3) and treatment.
A simple orthotic may be proposed by a podiatrist / Medical pedicure; it is a protective shell for onions that reduces friction and pressure. Damping products or gel base are available and play the same role.
Anti-inflammatory drugs relieve during inflammatory and painful flare and sometimes surgery is proposed. The operation tends to realign the toe by acting on the muscles, tendons and joint capsules, or directly on the bone (osteotomy).

How to prepare for my next visit?

In case of painful symptoms and inflammation of the joint, the installation of ice can temporarily relieve, pending such an anti-inflammatory prescription and causal treatment.

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