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Type 2 diabetes (Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Signs, Prevention, Consultation)

Definition of type 2 diabetes

Diabetes is defined as an excess of sugar in the blood (or blood sugar) in excess of 1.26 g / l fasting or 2 g / l non-fasting. There are several types of diabetes are the two main type 1 and type 2.

Only type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes) is discussed in this chapter type 2 diabetes usually occurs from 40-50 years. Its onset is earlier and earlier due to dietary habits and mode sedentary life. The type 2 diabetic patients often have several factors cardiovascular risk should detect and prevent: overweight, high blood pressure, excess lipids in the blood, physical inactivity.

Risks and consequences of type 2 diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disease more common in industrialized countries. Prevalence (number of diabetics / population) treated diabetes is estimated at 3.8%. Diabetes affects about 3 million subjects (types 1 and 2 combined), but experts agree that this figure is grossly underestimated because a third of diabetics are unaware of their condition.

In fact, diabetes can initially remain completely silent. Complications are, however, a major public health, both medically and economically. Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Causes and origins of type 2 diabetes

The type 2 diabetes is due to an abnormality of glucose utilization by the cells of the body. Unlike type 1 diabetes, insulin produced by the pancreas do not lack (the rate is normal), but it can not be used by the cells of the diabetic patient in order to bring the sugar as fuel. We talk about insulin resistance and the consequence is an increase in the rate of blood sugar (hyperglycemia).

Symptoms and signs of type 2 diabetes

The onset of symptoms is usually insidious and completely silent. The diabetic patient is unaware lives quite normally until complications reveal his illness. Screening by measuring blood glucose is essential.
The complications of diabetes are the severity of the disease. The chronic excess sugar in the blood causes symptoms of irreversible damage to the eyes, kidneys and nerves Diabetic microangiopathy is responsible for blindness, kidney failure or progressive loss of sensitivity feet. Vessels larger sizes are also affected and responsible for macrovascular disease (risk of myocardial infarction, stroke or amputation).

Type 2 diabetes Prevention

With what should we be confused?

The type 2 diabetes should not be confused with other types of diabetes, type 1. This (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes) occurs mostly in children and young adults and for 170,000 people. There is often a sudden weight loss, thirst and increased urination.
Diabetes insipidus is it about a leak due to a hormonal abnormality: the volume of urine up to 10 l / day.

Will it possible prevention?

Adopt a balanced diet adapted to their lifestyle should be a priority for any diabetic. Similarly, it is essential to conduct regular physical activity (eg, 30-minute walk three times a week), reduce other factors of cardiovascular risk by controlling weight.

The goal is to get a body mass index (ie your weight / your height, squared) less than 25, reducing his cholesterol and stopping smoking. Vaccination against influenza is also part of the recommendations, diabetic subjects are more sensitive and vulnerable to infection.

Finally, diabetic feet should be examined regularly (skin deformations) and pampered (port shoe care pedicures ...). An annual visit to the eye doctor and dentist complete prevention.

Type 2 diabetes Prepare consultation

When consulted?

The type 2 diabetes is often asymptomatic for years.
Only testing can therefore highlight hyperglycemia. This screening, in the form of a blood test in the laboratory fasting is useful from 45 years in subjects with other risk factors (overweight, hypertension, high cholesterol, family history ...) . Screenings are also regularly offered in pharmacies during campaigns.

What is the doctor in case of type 2 diabetes?

The doctor, in coordination with the specialist (diabetologist, endocrinologist) will confirm the diagnosis by blood tests and possibly other tests to detect an origin, risk factors or complications of diabetes. Factors of cardiovascular risk may be associated with diabetes are smoking, overweight or obesity, hypertension and disorders of fat. The initial assessment is therefore used to determine the treatment and monitoring of disease.
The main goal of diabetes treatment is to control blood glucose (blood sugar). Other treatments used to control weight, blood pressure and reduce fat levels in the blood, or to quit smoking. The treatment first call to the diet and the resumption of regular physical activity. If necessary, oral antidiabetic drugs or insulin, transitional or permanent, may be indicated.

How to prepare for my next visit?

Measured by the patient's blood glucose in a drop of blood (self) is important in some cases between consultations. The glycemic target is set by the doctor and the rhythm monitoring. A blood test (glycated hemoglobin or HbA1c) every 3 months to check blood sugar control.

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