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You must drink milk at any age

Academy of Medicine

It is important to guard against attributing scares dairy a long list of diseases, osteoporosis! The only cons-indications milk allergy are generally not persistent, the milk protein in the infant. Lactose intolerance lack of lactase primarily affects Asians and southern regions and involves only cow's milk and not cheese and fermented products.

Milk and dairy products (infant formulas, cheese and yogurt) are the main source of calcium in the human diet (2/3 inputs) because without them it is impossible to ensure the recommended age. They provide more protein intake very important to good biological value, as well as bioactive peptides, they are sources of phosphorus, potassium, trace elements (zinc, iodine, selenium ...) and vitamins (A, B12, B1, B6 ...).

The absorption of calcium active at any age is under the control of the vitamin D metabolite 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D Vitamin D is synthesized from 7-dehydro cholesterol in the dermis under the influence of ultra-violet rays and therefore solar radiation. Cholecalciferol or vitamin D is converted in the liver to 25-hydroxy calciferol and in the kidney to 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol. Hypovitaminosis D is relatively common in some populations, infants, adolescents, the elderly and people with colored skin. It must be corrected to avoid adverse reaction hyperparathyroïdienne to the bone. Effective dose at any age, prevention is 800 to 1000 IU / day at the end to ensure blood levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (which represents the vitamin D status of the individual) of at least 80 nmol / L (Vieth).

Adolescents and adults, a balanced diet provides between 600 and 700 mg per day of calcium. The main source of dietary calcium comes from milk and dairy products and consumption of milk and dairy products fortified with vitamin D or not ensures, at best, a nutritional supplement when necessary requirements to reach 1000 mg 1200 mg per day .. Supplements may also be provided by some calcium mineral waters, some of which are unfortunately too rich in sulfates. Note that all other common foods are low in calcium, with the exception of dried fruit and a few vegetables. However, the bioavailability of calcium plant is often diminished by the presence of substances insolubilisantes (phytates, oxalates, polyphenols) and is generally lower than the calcium in milk serves as a reference. In dairy products, calcium bioavailability is better because the calcium is bound to proteins (casein) or polypeptides thereby facilitating its absorption.

1 - Up to the age of 5-6 months, the needs are fully covered by breast milk or infant formulas by, after the age of 6 months to 3 years formulas dairy (milk continued growth and milk) are necessary to ensure the needs calcium, protein and essential fatty acids, iron and vitamins. These formulas have benefited in recent years improvements successive enrichment in polyunsaturated fatty acids, decrease the quantity and improving the quality of protein enrichment of certain amino acids, fat soluble vitamins and water-soluble iron and probiotics . It is important to make after the age of 6 months at least half a liter of milk formulas as age-appropriate. The whole cow's milk or semi-skimmed milk is not required until the age of 1 year because it is low in essential fatty acids and iron too much protein.

Reduce the number of formulas (over 200 currently on the market) with new marketing infant formula more limited is essential. These new formulas should be based not by unsubstantiated allegations but on studies and recommendations of the AFSSA, those of the European Society of Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN) published in 2005 and the Committee of Nutrition of the Society of Pediatrics (2007).

2 - Teenagers who do not consume dairy products are calcium deficient because their basic plan provides only 500-600 mg of calcium or half of the recommended dietary allowances (CNERNA-AFSSA, 2001). They have a high fracture risk in the medium term and at an advanced age. In the context of primary prevention of osteoporosis after middle age and its associated fractures, it is important to promote dairy intake as various intervention studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of dairy products on the accumulation of bone during growth.

3 - In pregnant women, dairy products are the main source of calcium for their needs and those of her fetus, the recommended intake of calcium is 1 000 to 1 200 mg / day.

4 - In adults and postmenopausal women, the association of calcium (1 200-1 500 mg / day) and vitamin D (800 to 1 000 IU / day) reduces the risk of fracture from the age of 50 years, especially among the elderly, whether or not an institution. Dairy products are the main source of calcium and protein in the form of low-fat milk, cheese or yogurt. As it is more normal nutrition, biological monitoring is required to avoid the risk of overdose.

5 - Adjustment of pathology:
- Postmenopausal women or the elderly, the extra calcium and vitamin D should be routinely advised if there is significant risk of osteoporosis or osteopenia if it is proven by densitometry osteoarthritis in combination with different disease treatments, including bisphosphonates, calcium intake (1200 mg / day), at home, are insured in whole or in part by dairy products.
-The prevention and treatment of diseases of overload (obesity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia) takes benefit of low fat dairy products as a source of protein and calcium and bioactive agents. The addition of vitamin D and polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 milk, offers exciting prospects for improving its nutritional properties.

• The maximum bone stock, the amount of bone that allows us to stand under conditions of fracture risk minimum is reached at the end of the second decade of life. This capital is mainly determined by genetic factors. Various other factors can influence the level of the capital, including a phase of rapid accumulation occurs during puberty. Among these factors, nutrient intakes, especially calcium and proteins, play a significant positive role. Dairy products combine these two nutrients. Children avoiding dairy products have increased fracture risk. This risk may remain high in older age.
• From the perspective of primary prevention of osteoporosis and fractures associated with it, it is imperative to promote adequate intake of dairy products, to ensure the achievement of an optimal capital ossseux.
• In the West, milk and dairy derivatives are the main source of calcium, which is essential not only to the regulation of bone metabolism, but also to the activation of enzyme systems for blood clotting and muscle contraction. For cons, the Far East and in much of Africa, calcium intake is ensured, mainly by plants and fish.

Calcium content of the main milk products

Milk and dairy products
Semi-skimmed or whole milk: 120
Yogurt: 150
Fresh cheese: 120
Small-Swiss: 100
Ice cream: 130-160
Brie: 120
Fresh goat / sec: 120/200
Camembert, Pont l'Eveque: 400
Recommended daily calcium intake

1-3 years 600 400-800 800
4-9 years 700 400-800 800
10-12 years 1 000 600-1200 1200
600-1200 12-19 1200 1200
Adult 800-900 800 500-1000
Pregnancy 600-1450 1000-1200 1200
Breastfeeding 1200 1200 900-1500

  • Milk and dairy products are recommended against obesity and diabetes. They are a source of high quality protein at a low cost.

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