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Placental abruption: definition

The placenta is the organ responsible for the exchange between the mother and the embryo / fetus. The placenta may detach partially from the uterus, resulting in the accumulation of blood (hematoma speaking) between the placenta and uterus. This placental abruption or placental abruption (HRP) can cause premature birth or fetal death. Placental abruption or abruptio is therefore premature detachment of a normally situated placenta (abruptio placentae).

Risks and consequences of placental

Placental abruption is an uncommon complication of pregnancy serious affect five pregnancies per 1000 while the minor forms affect pregnancy 100. In severe cases, fetal mortality is 30 to 60%.

Risk factors are found, known as gestational hypertension, that is to say an increase in blood pressure during pregnancy (40 to 50% of placental abruption), trauma during pregnancy (abdominal trauma in a traffic accident, fall ...) or smoking or end date.

Causes and mechanisms of placental abruption
Separation of the placenta occurs too early before birth and therefore occurs during pregnancy or during labor. The placenta is normally inserted, unlike placenta praevia. Detachment leads to bleeding and hematoma formation. The consequences affect both the fetus (trade disruption fœtomaternels) the mother (hemorrhage, coagulation disorders).

Symptoms and signs of abruption

Placental abruption usually occurs in late pregnancy (last trimester) and causes sudden abdominal pain "stabbing", located in the uterus. Unlike painful uterine contractions, the pain is permanent.

Sometimes the symptoms are close to preterm labor with contractions very painful.
The genital bleeding is the second sign with an abundance variable conventionally, it is black blood.

Nausea, vomiting, advanced hypertensive are also possible.

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