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Treatment Anus Cancer Medical Examination


The combination of chemotherapy using drugs such as mitomycin and fluorouracil and radiotherapy can get many healing while maintaining the sphincter. The advantage of the use of these molecules in the presence of mainly large tumors, despite their deleterious effects (toxicity) is not only an improvement in symptoms but also the preservation of the anal sphincter. Irradiation takes about four weeks (4 to five days of treatment per week) is first externally. It then performs complementary irradiation, carried out on the anal canal itself with external-beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy with (implementation under general anesthesia with a device for local irradiation ). In most cases, this type of treatment is the cause of symptoms (bleeding, burns to the anus, hardening of tissue fibrosis type of the anus, gas incontinence but not stool). Rarely, incontinence Also stool. Other types of complications (occurring mainly in tumor's volume) stenosis, that is to say, a significant narrowing of the anus and the local destruction of one particularly painful and sometimes accompanied fistula c ' is to say, communications between the rectum and the vagina. The presence of pathological lymph nodes in the groin requires excision (removal) and radiotherapy associated. The surgical procedure that involves removing the anus (anal amputation) is practiced mainly in case of failure of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this case, the change is difficult.

Anus (cancer of): Consulting physician

Examination of the patient and more particularly, the rectal as well as anoscopy, using a speculum very small, can be observed inside the anal canal. It sometimes observed budding tissue, unfortunately (delayed diagnosis), sometimes mistaken for hemorrhoids or an anal fissure. 

On palpation, the tumor is less elastic than normal skin that can possibly cause differential diagnosis of hemorrhoids among others. 

Anus (cancer of): Medical Examination

Additional examinations and more particularly, anoscopy followed by biopsy under local anesthesia (tissue sample locally) shows the nature of the cancerous lesion. Ultrasound inside the anus (endo-anal) will allow to assess the seriousness of the breach of the sphincters (circular muscles set for opening closing) the anus. More conventional examinations such as CT or pelvic MRI will allow to obtain a classification of the tumor, TNM classification: 

  • T corresponds to the invasion of the tumor.
  • The existence of N nodes.
  • M in the presence of metastases.
Anus (cancer of): Evolution of the disease

Metastases associated with this type of cancer is rare. 
In a number of cases large enough recurrence after chemotherapy and radiotherapy occurred in less than 10% of patients and 70% of patients with anal cancer could be cured by non-surgical treatment. 

The surgery will be reserved for a small number of patients in whom the persistent tumor after radiation therapy and chemotherapy. 

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