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What is asperger s syndrome definition

Asperger syndrome is one of the autism-spectrum disorders that is characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction, restricted interests associated with and behavior repeated. The language development and cognitive are relatively well preserved compared to other autism-spectrum disorders. However, they are required for physical clumsiness, diagnosis and atypical use of language are frequently reported.
This syndrome was named after the work of the pediatrician Austrian Hans Asperger (pronounced / as ˌ ˌ ˌ pɜrgər / ) who described, in 1943, children in whom we find a lack of non-verbal communication, a decrease in empathy with their peers and awkwardness physics. These works were revealed in 1981 by Lorna Wing, and then translated into English by Uta Frith in 1991 and have since significant media coverage.

The exact cause or causes of Asperger's syndrome are still unknown. Some researchers suggest a genetic cause. However, brain imaging techniques have not identified a clear common pathological phenomenon.

When the diagnosis is established, a multidisciplinary care with complementary techniques is proposed. However, the effectiveness of particular interventions is hard to estimate because the data on this subject are still limited. Support focuses on behavioral therapies that focus on specific deficits: weak communication capabilities, obsessive routines and repeated physical clumsiness. They are adults; many children can improve, but the social and communication problems persist.

Some researchers and people with Asperger syndrome have focused on the fact to consider Asperger syndrome as a difference rather than a disability that must be treated or cured. Limitations debilitating, socially, in particular, are associated with a singularity which sometimes proves to be an exceptional skill.


All psychological disorders related to autism remains strenuous to define, and classification is often debated multidisciplinary. Asperger syndrome is generally recognized as part of the autism-spectrum disorders which is a set of psychological characteristics are close and difficult to separate (hence the use of the word "spectrum"). They are distinguished in this spectrum:
  • the infantile autism,
  • AspergerAsperger' Syndrome
  • the atypical autism.
They are characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, which are "invading" the development of the individual and are accompanied by behaviors and restricted interest's center and repetitive.

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) published by the World Health Organization (WHO) codifies Asperger syndrome (F84. 5) and refers to as a "syndrome of validity nosological uncertain, characterized by an alteration quality of reciprocal social interaction, similar to that observed in autism associated with a repertoire of interests and activities restricted, stereotyped and repetitive. It differs from autism primarily in that it is not accompanied by a delay or impairment of language or cognitive development. "Most people with this disorder have normal intelligence, but they are usually awkward. Abnormalities often persist into adolescence and adulthood and do not seem affected by the environment.
Autistic psychopathy and schizoid disorder of childhood can be included. The simple schizophrenia (F20.6), the personality anankastique (F60.5), the attachment disorder of childhood (F94.1 F94.2 And), the obsessive-compulsive disorder (F42) and schizotypal ( F21) should be excluded.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) is a very general classification of psychiatrical disorders and related made ​​by the American Psychiatric Association. However, this is the reference most often referred to define this syndrome, DSM-IV F84.5. [299.80] Asperger Syndrome:

1. There are two clearly positive social behavior and damage to the following:
  • Eye contact, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors, Significant lack of social interaction as
  • failure to develop peered relationships appropriate to developmental level
  • Other people(for example, wants to show it, or not trout tiruvantel interest items), social or emotional reciprocity enjoyment, interests, or achievements of the lack of a 
  •  lack of spontaneous seeking to share.

2. Restricted, repetitious, and stereotyped, behavior, interests and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:
  • encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped interests and restricted abnormal either in intensity or in its orientation, 
  • apparently inflexible adherence to routines or rituals specific, nonfunctional 
  • stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g. flapping or twisting hands or fingers, complex movements of the body)
3. The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas.
4. There is no general delay in language clinically significant (e.g., the subject has used single words at the age of two years, and phrases used communication in the age of three years).
5. During childhood, there was no significant delay in the clinical development cognitive development or in, depending on the age, abilities of autonomy, adaptive behavior (other than in the field of social interaction) and curiosity about the environment.
6. The disorder does not meet the criteria for another specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder or those of schizophrenia.

Diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV have raised some technical reserves. In particular, Tony Attwood makes two main criticisms of these criteria. First, the DSM-IV because of the autism and Asperger's syndrome two diagnoses incompatible (with a ruler hierarchical doing that dual diagnosis of autism and Asperger syndrome, the diagnosis of autism the wins). The DSM-IV distinguishes autism Asperger syndrome assuming language delay, criterion fragile and loses all relevance in adolescents and adults the second reserve Tony Attwood on point D, which excludes children with language delay diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. In fact, many children with Asperger's syndrome had a language delay. In addition, the example shows the DSM-IV is indeed a child with a language delay.

The French reference, 1.03 Asperger's Syndrome, defines "presence of an autistic syndrome without delay in cognitive development and language development, especially. The autonomy of this syndrome compared with infantile autism, including forms of autism called "high-level" is discussed. This is particularly in such cases that have been described particular skills in certain areas (memory, calculation, etc.)isolated from the whole of psychic functioning. '

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