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History of Cholera Disease

In the nineteenth century, cholera spread repeatedly from its original reservoir in the Ganges delta in India, the rest of the world, before receding to South Asia. The Six pandemics have killed millions of people in Europe, Africa and the Americas. The seventh pandemic, which still exists today, began in 1961 in southern Asia and Africa won in 1971 and America in 1991. The disease is now endemic in many countries, and it is currently impossible to eliminate the pathogen in the environment.

Two serogroups of V. cholerae serogroups 01 and 0139, can cause outbreaks. The main reservoirs are human and aquatic environments conducive to algal blooms (plankton) as brackish water and estuaries. Recent studies indicate that climate change could create a favorable environment for V. cholerae and increase the frequency of the disease in vulnerable areas. Most outbreaks are caused by serogroup 01. Serogroup 0139, revealed for the first time in Bangladesh in 1992, possesses the same virulence factors as 01 and a similar clinical picture.

The Vibrio 0139 has now been reported in Southeast Asia and East Asia, but it is ignored if it spreads to other regions. It is recommended to monitor careful epidemiological strengthen it. Other strains of V. cholerae 01 and 0139 can cause mild diarrhea, but no epidemics.

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