Up to date, the ebola virus was a half-dozen sources violent outbreaks especially in West Africa. - The Ebola virus was first identified in 1976 in Sudan as well as Nzara Yambuku northern Zaire. June November 1976, the Ebola virus infected 284 people in Sudan by 117 deaths. In Zaire, there were 318 cases with 280 deaths in October from September. An isolated case occurred Tandala in Zaire in 1977 and a second blaze broke out in Sudan in 1979.
- In 1989 and 1990, a filovirus named Ebola-Reston was isolated from macaque monkeys quarantined laboratories in Reston (Virginia), Alice (Texas) and Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) in the USA.
These monkeys all came quarantine export licenses dune near Manila in the Philippines where the virus was also isolated.
- A large epidemic occurred in Kikwit in Zaire in 1995, there were 315 infections including 244 deaths.
- An isolated case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever and epidemic among chimpanzees were also observed in Ivory Coast in 1994.
- In Gabon, the first outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever virus was identified in 1994, other outbreaks were documented in February 1996 and July 1996.
- No infection with Ebola virus navait been reported until this epidemic quéclate Gulu in Uganda in the fall 2000.
In total, approximately 1,100 cases with 800 deaths have been identified since the discovery of the virus.
The haemorrhagic fever viruses are divided into four families: The flaviridés the bunyaridés the Arenaviridae and Filoviridae which are the longest virus that we know.
Ebola belongs to the family of filoviridae, gender filoviruses which includes several different biotypes: the débola Zaire virus (called Mayinga), Ebola Sudan and Ebola Reston.
Ebola virus is an enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses (helical nucleocapsid) which is similar to the morphology of Marburg virus antigenic structure but differs.
It can measure up to 1500 nm long with a diameter of 80 nm.
Primary human cases result from contamination from an animal reservoir and then the very high contagiousness of the disease is responsible for a large diffusion.
The natural reservoir of the Ebola virus seems to inhabit rainforests and dAfrique Dasie, but it has not yet been identified.
Related to Ebola filoviruses were isolated from cynomolgus monkeys (Macacca fascicularis) that had been imported from the Philippines to the United States of America in 1989. But the virus kills primates too quickly for them is a good tank .
Recent work by a team of CNRS Rennes in collaboration with the Institut Pasteur in Bangui, have uncovered sequences of the virus in different organs of 242 small mammals.
After the accidental contamination of a first man, the virus is then transmitted from the body fluids of a patient in clinical phase through direct contact with blood, secretions, organs or semen infected (saliva, blood, urine, faeces of patients are rich in virus) or by contact with the aerosol, and vomit may be sweat. The ingestion of infectious materials is associated with a risk of infection and a high fatality rate. Potential transmission through sexual contact with a patient cured is not determined, but it was shown that the Ebola virus is found in the genital secretions of convalescents several weeks after illness. Contamination therefore has a strong family or nosocomial. - Family Transmission: In families, the two major risks patient care and funeral toilet. - Transmission caregivers: During epidemics, lack of hygiene, lack of sterilization of equipment and especially needles and syringes contaminated facilitated nosocomial transmission of the virus.
Airborne transmission has been particularly studied in the survey conducted in the families of 34 cases of Nzara in 1979. This survey showed no risk due to a simple cohabitation in the same room and a five times higher risk for people with physical contact due to patient care compared to those with only "family" contacts.
Incubation time: 2 to 21 days - 5 to 12 days in most cases.
Duration of illness: from 6 to 10 days in fatal forms.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurs in most patients within a few days after infection by a sudden rise in temperature, with fatigue, muscle pain, headache, and diarrhea.
Some patients may show sore throat, hiccups, rash, vomiting blood and bloody diarrhea (called "red diarrhea" in Francophone Africa). Other symptoms may occur: conjunctivitis injected dysphagia.
The patient is extremely asthenic quickly and has a significant weight loss, due to both the lack of nutrition of this weakness in the absence of food and the disease itself.
Followed by vomiting, diarrhea, maculopapular rash, kidney and liver damage and bleeding diathesis; liver damage, pancreatic, kidney, and to a much lesser extent, of the CNS and of the heart; leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated transaminases.
Fever, often undulating in the early days, may disappear in the terminal phase.
Death is preceded by the appearance of tachypnea, hypotension, tachycardia, and anuria. The limited data available do not show pulmonary explaining tachypnea, and blood loss due to hemorrhage is still too low to explain the hypotension.
The diagnosis is difficult because précoses symptoms such as red eyes and itchy eyes are nonspecific. If someone shows symptoms mentioned above and the Ebola virus infection is suspected, several laboratory tests are to be made (ELISA, virus isolation).
"Lhospitalisation of isolation with appropriate measures, including during transport, SimPose to viral haemorrhagic fever clinical suspicion: recent fever quickly create an accompanying rash (4-5 th day) and hemorrhagic signs superficial and visceral (6-7 th day) an epidemic quickly taking shape step by step in the population. "(therapeutic protocol support for victims, record No. 6" Agents of viral haemorrhagic fevers ").
The fatality rate is between 50 and 90%. Most often, death is caused by a cerebral embolism (stroke).
There is no specific treatment or vaccine. There is no serotherapy.
Severe cases are placed in the intensive care unit: these patients are dehydrated and need to be placed on a drip for rehydration.
Maintain kidney function Treatment aims and electrolyte balance and combat hemorrhage and shock. Replacement of coagulation factors and platelets can be useful.
For patients who survive, recovery is accompanied by intense fatigue and arthralgia migrants often affecting large joints.
Prevention and safety
Suspected cases should be isolated from other patients and caregivers should operate under conditions of high security. Hospital staff should wear gowns, gloves and masks individual. Gloves and masks should not be reused unless they have been disinfected. Very important for certain actions such as the installation of an infusion risk, handling of blood and secretions, catheters and suction devices, which must be carried out in conditions of high security. The dead must be buried or cremated quickly.
Viruses such as Ebola existed for millions of years, long before the appearance of man. They can not live in free society and they rarely come out of their tank because they do not have the ability to easily colonize new host species.
Meet other species is an accident that does not result in the long term sustainability of the virus into a new species.
Low risk to the human population except where the possibility of coexisting primary contamination, poor hygiene and social structures disrupted.
Alerts: If you want to know more fresh update helpful articles enter your email address below and be notified by mail.