Definition of median meniscus tears
Menisci are structures made of fiber cartilage and cartilage located between the femur and the tibia.
We count 2 per knee, a medial meniscus and lateral meniscus. They have a vital role in protecting the cartilage in the knee stability.
We distinguish lesions of the median or medial meniscus and lateral meniscus lesions.
The median tear meniscus (or internal) is a very common condition that also occurs well after a sports injury that in the older subject, thanks to daily movements (squat pivot or twist) or degenerative phenomena.
Risks and health issues of the torn meniscus
The median meniscus tears are 5 times more common than injuries of the lateral meniscus.
Ultimately, tears and meniscectomy, which involves removing the damaged meniscus result in premature wear of the cartilage with the risk of osteoarthritis.
The meniscal tear is not just a sports injury, it can also occur in daily life or professional (employed kneeling or squatting, for example, tilers and plumbers).
Torn meniscus, especially median may be accompanied by ligament injuries.
Causes of meniscus tears median
The menisci are fibrous cartilage in the shape of half-moon or "C" for the median meniscus. The posterior horn is larger and helps to stabilize the knee (especially in external rotation of the tibia during flexion).
Tears or ruptures of the median meniscus are often the result of a trauma rotation, or in a squat in high flexion where the meniscus shears at his feet.
Meniscectomy is the removal, often under arthroscopy, a troublesome or injured meniscus.
How it does it manifest?
The meniscus tear resulting in pain following an external rotation of the leg (sports ...) or time to recover from a significant deflection.
The pain may be intermittent, annoying, or spontaneously without any notion of trauma.
The pain is located at the knee, between the tibia and femur (called internal tibiofemoral compartment of the knee), and occur during and after physical activity or squatting.
Blocking knee flexion is also possible, as well as swelling (synovial effusion) or print giving way of the knee.
With what should we be confused?
Do not confuse acute traumatic knee injury in the form of meniscal tear with méniscose.La méniscose is a chronic degenerative disease of the meniscus due to repeated trauma.
Some anatomical malformations (knee varus) are often associated with internal méniscose.
Is there a possible prevention?
Prevention of central meniscal tear based on the reduction of the burden of the impact on the knee by strengthening the muscles.
We must therefore develop the quadriceps (eccentric contractions), avoid working knees bent and help protect against impact (absorbing shoes, soft ground ...).
In case of pain, it is imperative to stop the physical activity that provokes and quickly check (doctor, sports doctor).
Continue solicitation meniscus or more generally the painful joint exposed to the risk of aggravation of the lesions.
What is the doctor?
The doctor suspected meniscal injury interrogation (mechanism and circumstances of the pain) and clinical examination.
It performs the test called "grinding test": the patient is placed in the prone position and the doctor seeks to replicate the inner knee pain during flexion and rotation, 90 ° of knee flexion.
If further tests are determined, X-rays can reveal osteoarthritis, but only arthrography and MRI visualize precisely meniscal lesions.
Treatment is primarily medical (rest, icing, painkillers, physiotherapy or infiltration).
Meniscectomy is surgery for resection of the injured meniscus. The orthopedic surgeon inserts an arthroscope with a camera into the knee through a small orifice.
A second opening allows the passage of instruments for resecting the injured part of the meniscus. The procedure increases the risk of osteoarthritis, which may occur a few years later, his information must be weighed (severe pain, failure of medical treatment, significant functional impairment ...). All lesions do not need surgery.
How to prepare for my next visit?
After surgery, a daily icing the knee is recommended for a few weeks, as well as drugs against pain and anti-inflammatory. Physical therapy may be prescribed to recover the mobility of the knee.
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