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What is Interventional Radiology?

Procedure performed by means of X-ray

With iliac stent inserted
Radiologists performing an increasing number of treatments as part of their investigations. Often it is about to loose out a narrow or closed vein, bile duct, ureter. Whether pierce the area directly, or it can be reached via a catheter passed through the blood vessels, bile ducts, urinary tract, etc. Less frequent surgery may involve drain an abscess or any other edema, or it could be taking a tissue sample from an internal organ.

The intervention occurs during pictorial guidance by X-ray fluoroscopy, contrast injection into the vein (angiography), ultrasound, CT or MRI. The intervention takes place usually in local anesthesia. Examples of such treatments is angioplasty, therapeutic embolization, vein-catheterization for infusion, insertion of blood this years Centre and filters, needle biopsy, drainage of abscess, drainage of urinary tract and drainage of the biliary tract.

The procedure involves the "repair" of an artery (artery) that are too tight or totally clogged. After local anesthesia of the skin sticking to that rule a needle tip in the artery in the groin. The catheter is inserted through the needle tip, which is then removed. By injecting small amounts of X-ray contrast you can see where you are, and the catheter is pushed to the destination. A stiff wire or wire (guide wire) located inside the catheter, used to pierce the narrow or clogged artery. A balloon catheter is inserted into the stricture of the artery. The artery is opened or pressed upwards by pumping up the balloon with a mixture of contrast media and saline. The procedure is performed especially in narrow blood vessels to the heart ( coronary angioplasty ), feet and kidneys. The procedure is most successful when the narrow portion of the vein is short. To prevent the artery from closing again quickly, inserts a stent, a kind of stiff wire, to prevent the artery clogging fast again.

Therapeutic embolization
Bleeding in an artery (artery) can be stopped by plugging holes. Arteriography localize the site of bleeding, which can then be sealed (embolised). It takes place at the radiology doctor leads into various types of materials through a catheter placed where the vein is damaged. Small metal coils coated with a gelatin foam, plastic particles, or special purpose glue that is converted into a solid mass when it comes into contact with blood are examples of various materials used in the therapeutic embolization (coiling). The treatment is particularly relevant in subarachnoid hemorrhage . The method is also used in cancer treatment to reduce blood supply to a tumor before surgery, and as part of palliative treatment of tumors that can not be removed. By cutting off the blood supply alleviated pain and tendency to bleeding is reduced.

Blood vessel-catheterization for infusion
The method is used especially in the treatment of cancer tumors. An arterial catheter can be placed accurately injecting chemotherapy directly into the tumor. Thereby achieves high concentration of toxin in the tumor, while less toxic substance comes in other places where it can cause side effects or complications. A catheter can also be placed on a fresh blood clot so that one can inject a substance that dissolves the clot, called thrombolysis .

Blood Center this years and Filters
Stents are expandable metal cylinders which are folded together so that they can be inserted through an artery or vein.Balloon  spander viable stents are rigid and placed by pumping up a balloon stent is about. Self-Expandable stents is folded in a plastic sleeve and folds itself out when the sheath is withdrawn.

Blood vessel Filters can be placed in large veins in the abdomen to capture blood clots (emboli) from the legs and pelvis. The treatment used very infrequently and is most appropriate for patients at risk of blood clots to the lungs which can not be treated satisfactorily with blood thinning medication.

Percutaneous needle biopsy
Needle biopsy is particularly useful in the diagnosis of tumors. Under the guidance of ultrasound, fluoroscopy or CT insert the needle through the skin (percutaneously) into the tumor. By cytology (Pap smear) is sucked tissue through the needle as it is moved gently inside the diseased tissue. When biopsy (removal of tissue samples) are needle usually connected to a spring mechanism that the release cut out a small tissue samples. Thin cytology measures can be inserted through the blood vessels and most other organs without the risk in patients not using blood thinning medication. When using thicker biopsy needles should hollow-shaped organ and the major blood vessels avoided. The advantage of this method is the need to operate the patient to get sampled tumor. Complications are rare with thin needles. Use coarse needles increases the risk for complications, especially bleeding.

Percutaneous drainage of abscesses and other fluid collections
The method involves insertion through the skin with a needle and a catheter to a boil (abscess) or fluid (eg. The pulmonary membrane cavity). The size of the catheter depends on what is to be drained. The introduction usually guided by X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound or CT. If drainage of abscesses is often a double-barreled catheter that allows to rinse pus cavity.

Drainage of the urinary tract
Such intervention may be appropriate at shutdown (obstruction) of the urinary tract. Eg. may be placed a stent from the bladder into the renal pelvis, usually in conjunction with cystoscopy. The procedure performed by urologists, specialists in urinary tract diseases. Alternatively, the catheter / stent is inserted through the skin (percutaneous nefrostomi / pyelostomi).

Drainage of the biliary tract
Drenasjerørene (stents) may be inserted through the skin or through the endoscope. It is used stents, plastic or metal mesh. The method is particularly useful in tumors of the "head part" of the pancreas that shuts off the bile duct. The procedure is most often done endoscopically in conjunction with ERCP where the ball through the catheter (cannulated) bile duct opening and causes the stent through the bile duct and tumor.

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