The heart consists of two atria (atria) and two ventricle (ventricles). Oxygen-poor blood flows back to the heart in the right atrium and then pumped through the right ventricle. From the right ventricle to pump blood to the lungs where it disposes of the waste gases and oxygen is supplied again. The blood is then collected in the left atrium and is pumped from there into the left ventricle. From here, blood is pumped into the body's major cycle through the main artery (aorta) and the other arteries. Between the atria and ventricles are the heart valves that prevent blood flowing back freaking way. Tricuspid valve between the right and ventricle. Mitral valve between the left and ventricle. Between the chambers of the heart and pulmonary circulation respectively, and the wide circulation it is also heart valves with the same function. Pulmonic valve on the right side, the aortic valve on the left side. The heart is covered with an outer membrane, the pericardium. Exterior of the heart we find the heart's own arteries, coronary arteries (coronary arteries) that supply the heart muscle with blood.
What is cardiac catheterization?
Cardiac catheterization may consist of two surveys - the heart and the coronary arteries ( coronary angiography ). The study of the heart can be left-or right-sided. See also video .
The left-sided cardiac catheter entered into through the arteries as by coronary angiography. Left-sided cardiac catheterization therefore often combined with coronary angiography. The study is used to examine the left side of the heart, and to measure the heart's pumping ability. By right-sided cardiac catheterization recognized catheter inserted through a vein (samleåre) usually in the groin. Via venous system recognized the catheter into the right atrium, right ventricle and possibly into the pulmonary artery. The survey provides data on the right side of the heart. Cardiac Catheterization is also used to evaluate the heart valves. Contrast inserts injections through the catheter makes it possible to take x-rays of the heart and great vessels.
Coronary angiography involves passing the catheter through the main artery (aorta) into the main trunk of the coronary arteries, from which the injected contrast - survey discussed separately.
Normal findings on cardiac catheterization
The heart is normally structured and functioning normally. Heart valves are normal amount of blood pumped out of the heart is normal (ie stroke volume, ejection fraction) and the oxygen content in the blood is normal in the various chambers of the heart or pulmonary arteries.
When cardiac catheterization done?
The survey done as part of the investigation of heart disease, both acquired and congenital. The purpose is to study and diagnose injuries of the heart chambers, heart valves and blood vessels leading into and out of the heart. The survey also made in the assessment of complications of myocardial infarction.
The introduction of the catheter occurs during radiographic fluoroscopy to monitor. Contrast inserts Spray No visible cardiac structures filmed or photographed.
A catheter is inserted into the heart through an artery (artery) or vein in the groin or arm. Arterial access leading to the left ventricle. The study may help to clarify the left ventricle pump power, the contour of the heart chamber is normal, and it may be faulty aortic valve or mitral valve. Venous access leading to the right atrium, right ventricle and pulmonary artery. Tricuspid and pulmonic valves can be assessed, as well as whether there are gaps in between the atria or the ventricles.
Other entries are made
The patient's pulse, heart rate and pressure monitored constantly. Pressure measurements can be made via the catheter so that one can examine whether abnormal pressure differences across the heart valves. Heart stroke volume and other volume sizes can be calculated using various techniques. Blood samples can be taken from the catheter for measuring blood oxygen levels at various locations in the heart.
The study is done in a special laboratory under sterile conditions with subdued lighting. You lie on a special investigation unit and ECG recorded all the time. You are given a sedative tablet and the local anesthetic at the insertion site. The catheter is inserted through the venous or arterial input. Pressure Measurements done at desired locations in the heart. Blood samples taken at desired locations for O 2 determinations (O 2 = oxygen). In connection with kontrastinnsprøytingene taken footage and photos. After the catheter is removed, you have to sleep with pressure (eg sand bags) at the insertion site for 20-30 minutes at right-sided heart catheterization, 3-4 hours when left-sided catheterization with entrance in the groin. A sterile pressure dressing will be viewed for a few hours.
Before the survey
You should have fasted for 4-5 hours before the test. Medication should not be changed, but anticoagulant treatment must be stopped at least 1-2 days before. You should urinate before the procedure starts as you are not needy under investigation. If you are allergic to iodine, you must notify because the contrast medium containing iodine. Aside from the plugin's study was not associated with pain, but minor discomfort may be experienced by some. By contrast injection can feel palpitation and heat for 30-60 seconds.
Follow-up after the survey
Bed rest is usually recommended 5-6 hours afterwards if the plugin has been in the groin. Upon insertion of the arm can usually start moving the arm after an hour. You must avoid to stretch and charge insertion site during this period, leg or arm must be stretched. Do you notice increased pain and discomfort at the insertion site, you need to tell because it can be stated that the blood seeping into the tissue around the vein. It is helpful that you drink plenty, or get fluids directly into the bloodstream.
The most common complication is bleeding from the site. Rare complications can be heart rhythm disturbances, allergic reaction to contrast medium, blood clots and stroke, heart attack, inflammation.
What were you gonna do?
Abnormal pressure in the heart may be due to valvular disease, heart failure, failing heart muscle. Contrast investigations may reveal changes in heart chambers or blood flow as a result of abnormal heart size, valvular disease, heart failure, aneurysms in the heart. Blood gas analysis can confirm the disease of the heart, lungs and circulation.
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