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What is angiography and arteriography?

Angiography showing cramped party in artery

Angiography is an X-ray examination of blood vessels. Larger veins are divided into two groups:

  • Arteries (blood vessels), which carry oxygen-rich blood out to the body from the heart
  • Veins (collecting veins), which carries oxygen-poor blood back to the heart

Angiography can roughly be divided into arteriography and venography, depending on the vessel being examined. To prepare a vein on X-ray, it must inject contrast dye into the vein. The contrast makes the artery visible and one can examine whether there are changes in the hearth.

The most common arteries being examined, the coronary arteries (arteries, see coronary angiography ), carotid arteries (carotids), arteries in the brain, arteries arising from the aorta (aortic) and arteries in the legs and feet.

The survey makes it possible to detect damage, stenosis, obstruction, aneurysms (aneurysms) in years, and also shows blood flow to the organs or areas of the blood vessels supplying.

When done arteriography?
Arteriography be suspected circulation problems. Whether in the form of decreased arterial circulation or as a result of blockage of blood flow in veins. The blood vessels in the neck (carotids) examined sometimes associated with seizures or "drip", where one suspect confined areas in the neck arteries, or blood clots, which can detach from these arteries and clog the small arteries in the brain. However, ultrasound of the neck vessels of the preferred survey.

At the special type of brain hemorrhage called subarachnoid hemorrhage , where there are gaps in the ballooning of the blood vessel (aneurysm), used arteriography. Arteriography is also used to investigate aneurysms in other arteries such as the aorta (aortic). It may also be necessary to make arteriography before surgery of a tumor, so that the surgeon knows where the important blood vessels are located. Bleeding in the digestive tract can be difficult to locate, arteriography can make it easier to find the source of bleeding.

Normally, by arteriography find arteries (or veins) of normal size and appearance, no sign of narrowing (atherosclerosis) and with a normal course.

Patient Preparation
It can range from X-ray department to the radiology department how to conduct the survey. You need to follow the instructions you receive from your radiology department. The following describes how the study is often performed.

Are you allergic, especially if you've responded to the contrast dye before, you must notify the radiology department. Likewise, it is important that the radiology department know know if you have kidney failure, diabetes, or multiple myeloma. You are also very careful to make such an inquiry if you are pregnant. Before the study can kidney function checked with a blood test (creatinine). If you take warfarin, one would measure INR.

Do not eat or drink in the past four hours before the examination. This is to prevent nausea and vomiting during the study. When contrast is injected into the vein, you can feel heat spreading in the body. Nausea and discomfort may occur. The investigators rely on you to collaborate and include is silent when pictures are taken.

Arteriography is usually performed with inserts in the large artery in the groin. From the site recognized a catheter (thin plastic tube) until the blood vessel to be examined. From this position sprayed ionic contrast media through the catheter and into the artery. Contrast fluid followed both by X-ray fluoroscopy on a screen and shooting.

The survey takes place under sterile conditions with sterile equipment, cleaning the skin with disinfectant liquid and cover the surrounding skin with sterile sheets. It is given a local anesthetic before the needle is inserted into the artery and the catheter is inserted. The catheter, which contains a soft metal wire (wire) is inserted into the appropriate blood vessel or the heart. Once the catheter is in place, remove the guide wire and catheter connects to contrast the syringe or device that provides injection of contrast in the right doses at the right time. X-rays are taken. After the examination is taken out and the catheter insertion site in the groin covered. To prevent bleeding from the hole in the artery, vein clamped for approx. 10-15 min, or until the bleeding has stopped.

In certain arteriography where it is demonstrated narrowing of the artery, made ​​so-called angioplasty . Using the guide wire will then try to get through the narrowed or clogged party. Then use a small balloon filled with liquid, to open up the artery, i.e. expand the stricture. You can also insert a reinforcement of metal mesh (stent).

Monitoring by the survey
After arteriography should be flat, or with the body somewhat raised, for 4-6 hours. This is to prevent bleeding from the site. For the same reason, do not bend or stretch the leg in a few hours, do not lift your leg off the ground. Sometimes it can form a blood clot under the skin, called a hematoma. Therefore, using in many places a sandy bag over the puncture site to prevent the development of hematoma.

You must notify by should you get sudden pain or be numb leg man stuck in. Once in a while it may in fact cause blood clots. It is important to drink plenty after such examination. You should drink at least 2 liters of liquid the first day.

What to do?
The most common found at arteriography is narrow arteries, artery, caused by atherosclerosis (atherosclerosis). In some cases it is found that year is quite dense. The need for further investigation of ways to do CT , MRI , ultrasound, MR angiography.

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