Acne: What is it?
Acne vulgaris is called hypersecretion of the sebaceous glands associated with obstruction of the pores in the skin cells. It thus appears that the skin is more oily face (forehead, nose and chin, but it can spread to the whole face), upper back and shoulders.The excess sebum produced no more eliminating it forms microcysts ("white spots") when the pore is completely closed, or comedones ("black spots") when partially open and the sebum oxidizes (darkens) in contact with the air.
Inflammation occurs spontaneously or by the manipulation of microcysts, which become red bumps (papules) and sometimes pus (pustules). The main causative agent of this inflammation is a bacterium, Propionibacterium acnes. Crust pustules often leaves scars up to more or less deep and extensive.
What are the signs of acne in adults?
So until puberty acne more often for boys than girls, adult women are more frequently affected than men.
The adult acne is more often than retentional papular, with buttons around the mouth and chin in women, back and neck in humans.
It can be a persistent acne since a teenager, a relapse of acne after several years without damage or acne occurring in a person who has never had, but there exists a constant It always occurs on oily skin.
Types of acne
When the retention of sebum and clogged pores predominate, acne is called "rétentionelle": it presents with comedones and / or microcysts.
When inflammation is very important, acne is called "nodular dermatitis" with papules and pustules, or nodules (pimples forming a lump under the skin).
Acne conglobata is a severe form of acne. The marked inflammation with nodules leave scars more or less pronounced.
What are the risks, health and social issues of acne?
The adult acne is often less severe than during puberty. The psychological impact is generally less important than adolescents, but oily skin, irregular, dilated pores, pimples and / or scarring remains poorly lived. When acne leaves marks significant skin and irreversible interventions specific dermatological (dermabrasion, laser ... etc). Expensive and may be required to remove or fade.
Can we prevent acne?
Can reduce acne breakouts with simple means:
- Stop smoking
- Avoid sun exposure seems to improve temporarily but thickens the skin where an upsurge secondary buttons.
- Properly clean the skin to remove excess oil, but without irritating: a "stripping" aggressive stimulates the secretion of sebum. Choose preferably a soap "soap free", possibly followed after careful drying, a soothing solution (without alcohol) and a non-comedogenic moisturizer.
- Moisturize the skin does not lubricate: Do not apply ointment fat and check the label on the products used are not comedogenic.
- No tweaking knobs: it increases inflammation spreads germs and risk of scarring
What are the causes of acne?
Adults are multiple:
1 - Hereditary factors. The risk of acne is higher or a fortiori when both parents have suffered from acne. It also tends to inherit a large production of sebum, an accelerated proliferation of epidermal cells clogging the pores, a greater presence of bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and inflammation.
2 - hormones, particularly androgens, male hormones that occur as women. They explain the acne of puberty, as well as acne breakouts in the period before the rules (2/3 of cases) as well as during pregnancy. Some contraceptive methods with androgenic action may worsen acne, while in contrast some pills are indicated for the treatment of acne.
Namely: Acne is rarely due to a hormonal disease, there is no reason to apply a systematic dosage of hormones in the blood, costly and normal most of the time.
3 - The power plays no role in acne. Eat "fat" does not skin "fat. However smoking may be an aggravating factor in causing a thickening of the skin. Smokers are more often acne than non-smokers and home treatments are less effective.
4 - Some drugs, especially anti-epileptics are known to give some serious acne.
5 - Stress, pollution, excessive exposure to sun, skin care inadequate, ointments or creams fat also promote acne breakouts.
6 - pregnancy has an influence on acne, either by improving or worsening in.
Acne in adult women - Consultation
With what should we not confuse acne?
Acne vulgaris is described here distinguish fake acne:
Acne rosacea (or blotches) is not an acne despite its name. This disease starts at 30/40 years transient redness become permanent and form red patches. These are sometimes accompanied by small dilated blood vessels and red bumps, pus but possibly different acne because there are no blackheads or microcysts.
Acne inversa is not acne, but a "suppurative hydradenite", ie chronic inflammation of the sweat glands that become secondarily infected secondarily
What is the general practitioner or dermatologist?
It is important to treat early acne to avoid the persistence of lesions and permanent scarring.
The physician chosen treatment depending on the type of acne (inflammatory or retentive) and its severity.
Mild acne, no inflammatory and little treat infected by local applications of gels, sprays, creams ... etc.. Their goal is to reduce sebum secretion, reduce the thickness of the skin to unclog pores and prevent inflammation and infection. These products are irritants to varying degrees and must be accompanied by proper hydration of the skin.
In more severe forms, the doctor prescribed courses of antibiotics or isotretinoin systemically.
A hormonal balance is useful if the patient suffers from irregular and / or heavy hair.
A pill to anti-acne may be prescribed, or other contraception without affecting the acne.
Whatever the treatment, you need to be patient (several weeks are needed before seeing a result) and accept that early treatment may be associated with temporary worsening of acne.
When to consult the general practitioner or dermatologist?
There are many anti-acne prescription, but a consultation is recommended to choose the one that best suits.
The consultation is essential in severe acne, extensive, inflammatory, or superinfected resistant to local treatment. Especially as the reference drug is isotretinoin which requires medical supervision, after a blood test (cholesterol, triglycerides and transaminases). Isotretinoin is a derivative of vitamin A cause birth the fetus. His prescription is only possible outside of pregnancy. This implies effective contraception before treatment started and continued for at least a month after his arrest. With pregnancy tests before treatment, then every month until 6 weeks after stopping treatment.
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