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Tools in public health

Indicators are measurement tools developed to assess and compare certain phenomena in space and time. They allow to know the state of health.

They meet certain characteristics:

  • It must be accurate: correspond to reality and correct data.
  • It should be easy to obtain.
  • It must be simple to calculate.
  • It must be faithful.
  • It should be easy to understand.

tools used in public health
The health indicators
  • Demography: population distribution by age, sex, locality
  • The life expectancy: average number of years a person can live.
  • The birth rate: number of births per annum over a given population.
  • The birth rate: ratio of the number of births during the year to the average total population of the year.
  • Fertility: number of births per annum in relation to the number of women of child procreated.
  • The fertility rate: ratio of live births in the year to the average female population of the year.
  • Mortality: number of deaths per annum over a given population.
  • The mortality rate: the average number of years the ratio of the total population in the year of death.
  • Morbidity: frequency of illness, injury and disability in a population.
  • The fatality rate: number of persons who, having become ill, die from the disease per 1000 people, for a given year.
  • Incidence: number of new cases occurring in a given population during a given period.
  • Prevalence: total number of cases of a disease existing at a given time.

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