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Brain Functions and injuries

It is often possible for the doctor (neurologist) to determine where in the brain, an injury or brain tumor is based on the symptoms and signs (outcomes) that are available. This is because the brain is very logically structured. Specific functions performed by certain areas of the brain (see figure).

Some terms recur when talking about brain functions. Motor function is a collective term for muscle movements performed in the body. Sensory functions denote everything's sensations and sensory to do.

The outcome of damage different parts of the brain

Remember that the brain has two hemispheres. Right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, while the left brain controls the right side of the body. The reason for this is that the nerve pathways from the cerebrum cross over to the opposite side of the thalamus and brain stem (the transition to the spinal cord). Usually one hemisphere dominant, typically the left, and damage to this page will increasingly be able to destroy the intellectual functions and language.

Examples of outcomes in specific areas of the brain:

Frontal lobe
The front part of the cerebrum (frontal lobe) is important to coordinate thinking, intellectual functions and emotions. A tumor or damage here will be able to give personality changes, either in the form of impaired judgment and loss of self-criticism, or indifference, and motivation failure.

Fortil in the brain is also the frontal gaze at a center. It controls the simultaneous movements of the two eyes, ie, both eyes move together. An injury to this center on one side causes the eyes to have their eyes turned to this page, and that the patient cannot move his gaze to the opposite side.

Motor part of the cortex
This is the part of the brain responsible for movement and muscle activity of the body. The center is located at the back of the frontal lobe. Damage to one side of the center gives paralysis on the opposite side, for example, in one leg often, injuries such as stroke cause paralysis halvsidig body (hemiparesis).

Each body section is represented by a specific area of ​​the cortex. This means that a minor injury can sometimes cause the motor deficits (paralysis) from one body paragraph, for example, in the arm.

Somatosensory cortex in the area directly behind the motor part of the cortex, especially in the so-called parietallappen, recorded sounds like the touch, pain, temperature, vibration and joint sense (somatosensory functions). Injuries or tumors in this area will lead to be decreased or absent sensation in the body opposite half. Here too, the various body sections its specific location in the cortex, so that any minor injuries giving precise outcomes and sensory, for example, in a foot.

Association Areas
Large areas of the cortex involved in composite tasks such as thinking, intellectual functions, interpretation of sensory input, planning and execution of complex actions. Damage here can result in us not being able to interpret the signals that come to mind, for example, visual impression. Injuries can also cause the patient does not understand how a complex motion to be carried out and unable to perform it (apraxia).

Visual bark
In the posterior (occipital lobes) are the visual center. An injury in this region leads to loss of vision. Are the damage is only on one side? One will be blind in the eye on the opposite side?

Language Areas
In virtually all right-handed language areas are located in the cortex posteriorly and on the side of the left hemisphere, and vice versa for left-handed people. The areas that control hearing, the interpretation of the sounds, "imaging" of sounds and speech, is located some distance from each other. This means that damage to different parts of the brain can cause various language disorders. For example. It may be that a patient does not understand what is being said (sensory aphasia), or a patient unable to speak (expressive aphasia).

The thalamus
The thalamus is a center located in the central parts of the brain most sensory nerves (those that bring signals of sensations) from the body "by switching it" in the thalamus. Lesions in the thalamus will cause sensory disturbances in the body opposite half. Damage here can also provide motor disorders.

Basal ganglia
This is a collection of nuclei located deep within the cerebrum. They have important responsibilities in the preparation of voluntary movement. Damage to the basal ganglia therefore, primarily motor disorders. These are characterized by stiffness in the movements, difficulty starting movements, slow movements, fewer spontaneous movements, tremors. Such symptoms described parkinsonism.

The cerebellum
The cerebellum, cerebellum , located in the posterior fossa and partially under the back of the cerebrum. It has an overall responsibility to coordinate movements. The pre-calculate the power, timing and duration of muscle contractions in the muscles involved in the movement. During the execution of the movement receives cerebellar signs of movement and can therefore adjust the movements along the way, so they are smooth and harmonious. Illness or injury to the cerebellum causes the movements are imprecise and unrhythmic (ataxia).

The brain stem
The brain stem connects the cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord. All neural pathways from the body pass through the brain stem. Brain nerves that supply the head and face with nerves, emanating from the brain stem. Injuries or tumors in this area can affect both motor and sensory functions in the body. Nowhere else are so many important neural pathways in one small area. The brain stem also contains the vital respiratory and circulatory centers, and retikulærsubstansen which are significant for consciousness. Even very small injuries, tumors or inflammation in the brain stem may therefore provide a variety of outcomes, and more extensive damage can cause coma and life-threatening malfunctions.

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