Definition of cervical dysplasia
Cervical dysplasia are precancerous lesions of the cervix that can lead to cancer after a few years. This is why it is imperative to detect and monitor.
Origin of cervical dysplasia
Cervical dysplasia can occur in all age groups from 25-30 years. It is not related to hereditary factors, but to infection by a virus of the family papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is an extremely common sexually transmitted virus. A number of subtypes (but not all) can cause dysplasia.
Screening for cervical dysplasia
All women should receive at least one gynecological exam per year, at the beginning of their sexual lives. This review is an opportunity to make a Pap smear: Using a small brush or spatula, the doctor takes a sample of cells in the cervix and the vagina. The levy is very quick and painless. It is spread on a glass slide and sent to a laboratory for analysis. The blade is then observed under a microscope by experts who examine cells collected, type and quantity. Normally receive a Pap smear is the best way to identify precancerous lesions such as dysplasia and early cancer lesions, easily treated. It is recommended to perform a Pap smear every two to three years (after the first two regular examinations a year apart), this early in his sexual life and up to 65 years.
Prevent dysplasia and cervical cancer vaccine
Preventive vaccines "HPV" lead the body to synthesize neutralizing antibodies capable of protecting us when meeting with the majority of HPV responsible for cervical dysplasia and cancer of the cervix.
The High Council of Public Health recommends vaccination "all girls aged 14 years to protect them before they are at risk of infection." Similarly, "the vaccine is also offered to girls and young women aged 15 to 23 years who have not had sex or at the latest within one year after the beginning of their sexual lives." However, vaccination against HPV infections do not replace screening with Pap smear.
The treatment of dysplastic cervical
Some dysplasias regress spontaneously and do not degenerate into cancer. They just need to be monitored. But others must be processed.
- The injury surveillance is done through a painless test called "colposcopy". This examination can view lesions and monitor their progress. It is played using a colposcope, an instrument that magnifies the image of the vaginal and uterine lining.
- When dysplasia requires treatment, three main approaches can be used, depending on the type and extent of the lesion. The first method is to locally apply a laser vaporization that will burn injury. The second method, cryotherapy, aims to destroy the lesion by freezing. Sometimes it is necessary to perform a minor surgical procedure called cervical conization (see box).
After treatment of dysplasia, there will simply be an earlier gynecological monitoring to verify the absence of recurrence.
Conization of the cervix
Conization is to surgically remove a portion of the cervix. The procedure to confirm the exact type of cervical lesion and its extent. It also allows to completely remove the lesions and thus prevent their progression to cancer of the cervix.
Conization is done by natural means. It can be achieved using electrocautery (électroconisation), a laser, or a "conventional" knife. The procedure can be performed under local anesthesia, locoregional (epidural) or general, depending on the choice of the patient and the decisions of the surgeon and the anesthetist.
Conization does not cause virtually no post-operative pain. This procedure is compatible with subsequent pregnancies.
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