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CT of the brain


CT image of brain hemorrhage
The brain is well protected inside the skull, cranium. The brain consists of big brain (cerebrum) consisting of two halves (cerebral hemispheres) and cerebellum (cerebellum) and brainstem (see figure ). Cerebral hemispheres represent nearly 90% of brain tissue. Each hemisphere measures approx. 15 cm in length and ca. 11 cm in total width. The outer part of the cerebrum characterized cortex (cortex) and include areas that control our movements, thoughts, feelings, etc (see figure ). The surface of the cortex consists of a series of folds of nerve tissue, so that the total surface area is quite large. The cerebellum, which controls coordination of muscles located under the rear part of the hemispheres. Also cerebellum consists of nerve cells and is divided into two hemispheres. The brain stem, which is about 75 mm long, connects the rest of the brain with the spinal cord and contains nerve centers that control automatic functions such as. breathing and heartbeat. Inside the brain, there are four cavities (ventricles) which are connected with each other and which are filled with fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (see figure ). Ventricles has an open connection with the long, thin cavity that runs down the spinal canal and the cavity between the soft brain tissue and skull (see figure ). All these cavities containing.

What is CT?
CT stands for Computed Tomography. CT images are formed by the same type of x-rays by plain radiographs. CT technique differs from the X-ray by the use of a more sophisticated method for registering jets than usual film, and a computer is used to translate the data into a picture. X-ray sources and the parts that capture the rays, x-recipients or detector move around the area being imaged, enabling the production cross section and three dimensions. The advantage of this method is that it can detect very small changes and can produce images of soft tissue, unlike X-rays which can primarily produce bone tissue.

Radiation burden is larger than a regular X-ray examinations of the head, but you weigh this up against the diagnostic yield, which is usually larger - one gets simply better pictures.

CT of the brain
CT of the brain termed the technical term for cerebral CT. The pictures taken are used to produce brain tissue, membranes and blood vessels inside the head. Soft tissue of different densities can be separated from each other and in the brain may eg. cortex and brain marrow (gray and white matter) separated from the spinal fluid.

The survey is the brain divided into many "slices". Routine involves a CT scan of the brain 12 to 16 horizontal cross section of the brain. Supply of X-ray contrast via the blood can give better image details.

The images appear in different shades of gray. The lighter the shade, the higher the density tissue or structure. Bones are white, while the air is black. Large blood vessels can be fabricated by injection of contrast in years.

When done CT of the brain?
CT performed for suspected disease or abnormalities in the brain. This is particularly true in the study of stroke cases or to assess whether there may be a brain tumor. CT is also made in the study of fuzzy head ailments such. prolonged headache.

CT can be performed in two different ways: As a series of single images or as a continuous image recording by so-called spiral CT.

Series of individual images
The organs under study is depicted in many horizontal slices, called slices. One and a cross-sectional view is taken. While traditional X-rays provide a "flat" two-dimensional image in which organ in the anterior part of the body is the body further back, manufactures CT images without ghosting bodies of underlying organs. The processing of the image signals in a computer can translate the sections together in a three-dimensional image. Supplemented with contrast injection, tumors and inflammatory diseases produced by visible blood supply.

Spiral CT
Spiral CT is a new type of CT where the patient is moved continuously through the radiation field so that the circular motion of the X-ray source and the detector creates records in a spiral. In this way information is stored as a continuous volume on a computer. This means that larger areas can be imaged in a single pass over shorter time. Volume data is then used by the computer to create images cut and possibly three-dimensional images.

How is the survey?
This can vary from the X-ray department to the radiology department. The information sent from the radiology department can be examined is the one that applies. Mostly going investigation as explained below.

You examined lying on a motorized table that moves you into a "donut-like" opening. You need to lie very still during the examination of the images will not be blurred.

Apparatus, x-ray sources and receivers, the "donut" moving around you while the pictures are being taken. The images are displayed simultaneously on a screen. If it is necessary to prepare an area brighter, administered a contrast injection into the bloodstream. Many experience a feeling of warmth throughout the body when the contrast is injected, a few react with malaise, nausea and possibly vomiting. By breathing slowly and deeply can reduce the discomfort.

Patient Preparation
Generally recomend you to fast 2-4 hours before the test if there is to be contrast. This is to reduce any discomfort from contra tin spraying.

If you are pregnant, you should notify basis because they are reluctant to do CT during pregnancy. Both the referring physician and the radiology department will review the necessary survey.

Claustrophobic reactions may occur, but the vast majority are subject to investigation without major problems. Patients who are very anxious, you can get a soothing spray. Patients with severe pain may get painkillers.

Metal objects such as earrings, hairpins, jewelry, etc. must be removed from the study area.

By any use of contrast
Do you have allergies, radiology department must be notified so that they can both assess the need for the use of any contrast and / or take preventive measures. This particularly applies if you have allergic reactions to contrast injection before.

If you have diabetes, diabetes, using medicines Glucophage / Metformin / Orabet and it will be given contrast in conjunction with CT scanning, you will be told to stop taking tablets for kidney function (creatinine) are examined one of the first days after the survey .

Also, patients with renal impairment or disease multiple myeloma requires a special set of x-ray department.

Sources of error
Hemorrhagic strokes can be difficult to see, especially if it's been some time (days, weeks) since the bleeding occurred. A blood clot in the brain (making a stroke) can be overlooked if it has gone for a short time, ie a few hours since the injury occurred. Patient motion reduces the quality of the images.

What to do?
A wide range of changes in the brain can be detected by CT. The most frequent diseases one can find is brain damage from stroke (bleeding or blood clots, thrombosis), tumors, proliferation of cancer elsewhere in the body, inflammation, dementia changes and different damage after TBI.

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