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Definition Urinary calculi, Prevention and Consultation

Urinary calculi (kidney and bladder)

Urinary calculi: Definition
Urinary stones (urolithiasis or) are salt crystals that form in the urinary tract. Kidney, ureter (connecting the kidney to the bladder), the bladder or the urethra (from the bladder to the urethra) are involved in the formation of urinary stones.

The small stones are eliminated naturally but the largest are responsible for pain can not be removed when there is talk of colic.

Risks and health issues of urinary
2-3% of the general population suffer from urolithiasis. Men are slightly more affected than women and the left kidney is more often affected than the right kidney.

In case of recurrence of crises, the risk is a breach of the kidney itself, with reduced operation (renal failure).

Causes of urinary
Different types of calculations are involved depending on their composition. We distinguish calculations related to the crystallization of calcium, uric acid or cystine.

A diet rich in protein favors calculations, a low intake of beverages is causing concentrated urine conducive to stone formation. Similarly, certain blood disorders with excess calcium or uric acid urinary favor.
Symptoms and signs of urinary calculi

Urinary stones may be asymptomatic, form and naturally eliminate the case of small calculations. Otherwise, symptoms are three in number.

Pain is the first symptom, it is called colic. The pain from the lower back (lumbar) and radiates to the external genitalia. The crisis is brutal and very violent.

The second symptom is the presence of blood in the urine or hematuria. Most often, hematuria is not visible to the eye but detected by urine dipstick or analysis. In case of large amount of blood, it can be noticed by the patient.

Urinary infection
Finally, a urinary tract infection can complicate urinary calculi, with burning on urination, more frequent urination and turbid urine. Fever may occur and aggravate the table (prostatitis in humans, acute pyelonephritis in both sexes).

Urinary calculi (kidney and bladder) Prevention

With what should we be confused?

Back pain should not be confused with a "back strain" or lumbago. It is therefore desirable to provide a urine dipstick test for the presence of blood, then signing the diagnosis of renal colic.

Similarly, a sharp pain suggestive of renal colic may be due to an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta.

Is there a prevention possible?

The lifestyle measures are fundamental and always recommended.
Beverage intake should be between 1.5 and 2 liters per day (to increase when high heat or sweating the normal color of urine should be colorless or pale yellow).

A balanced diet includes enough calcium intake (800 mg to 1 g), animal protein in moderation and too much salt.

Depending on the nature of the calculation, some recommendations will be given specific, such as limiting the consumption of chocolate in case of oxalate or calcium limit in case of excessive intake.

Urinary calculi (kidney and bladder) Preparing consultation

When to consult?

The pain is so in case of colic that consultation is needed urgently.
In case of fever or anuria (more urine), consultation is also needed urgently to avoid complications (kidney destruction, widespread infection ...).

What is the doctor?

The examination of the type of pain, location and evolution (crisis ...) is suggesting the diagnosis of urinary stones. A reactive dipstick dipped in urine, the firm, confirm the presence of blood and / or infection.

Then tests can directly visualize the calculations. These ultrasound urinary (images hyperechoic), the radiograph of the abdomen without preparation or ASP, intravenous urography (IVU) and finally scan or abdominal CT scan. The scanner has the advantage of highlighting other causes of pain (differential diagnoses). Urinalysis as urine culture or urinalysis complete the assessment, and a blood test to check the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and uric acid and renal function.

Several therapeutic options are available, from simple monitoring to surgery through the extracorporeal lithotripsy to dissolve the calculations. Treatment by natural means also allow extraction or stone fragmentation through the urinary tract.

How to prepare my next visit?

When a simple monitoring is recommended, the position calculation is controlled by ultrasound or radiography regularly (a few days to a month or more). In the meantime, adequate hydration is necessary.

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