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Definition of Bladder

Bladder cancer

The bladder is a muscular bag that collects the urine from both kidneys transported by the ureters. Bladder urine drains through another channel called the urethra. In women, the urethra is very short, is placed just in front of the vagina.

In men, the urethra is a canal that runs through much longer first prostate then traverses the lower half of the penis.

The bladder cancer in figures
Bladder cancer is the 7th largest of all cancers. An estimated 9,679 new cases were diagnosed in 2005, 82% in humans. That same year, he was responsible for nearly 4500 deaths. The average age at diagnosis is about 70 years.

Causes of bladder cancer

Tobacco is a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Prolonged contact with certain chemicals, aromatic amines (present in the rubber industry or industries dyes, for example) are also considered risk factors.

Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that is rampant especially in Egypt, can also cause the formation of bladder cancer.

Symptoms of bladder cancer
Signs should lead to visit:

- Presence of blood in the urine, either intermittently or permanently;

- Syndrome of cystitis;

- Burns urinary

- Back pain.

Detect bladder cancer
During the consultation, the urologist support its diagnosis mainly on intravenous urography (X-ray of the urinary tract) and especially on endoscopy.

Cystoscopy (introduction into the bladder of a flexible tube through the urethra) will tell whether or not a tumor. A sample can be practiced for analysis and diagnosis.

Treatment of bladder cancer
Surgery is the main treatment for bladder cancer. The type of response depends essentially on the nature and size of the tumor. Resection of the tumor cystoscope is performed in a first step.

-In case of superficial tumors of the bladder, the procedure usually involves ablation or lesion (s), produced by natural means.

It can be supplemented by intravesical instillations of either BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine against tuberculosis), or chemotherapy.

Indeed, these treatments can reduce the risk of local recurrence.

BCG is also used in superficial bladder cancers.

-In case of invasive tumor of the bladder, it is necessary to ablate a large part or all of the bladder (cystectomy) and to set up a branch of the bladder to allow the evacuation of urine.

The long-term side effects depend on the type of procedure performed (stoma or neo-bladder). Impotence is common and usually final. If the surgeon introduces a neo-bladder, the patient found, in general, urinary continence, at least the day.

Radiation therapy may be associated with chemotherapy, and in this case, an alternative to surgery: there is therefore no side effects ostomy nor thereto.

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