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Definition of lipids

Definition of lipids

Lipids are part of the three basic components of food with protein and carbohydrates.
These are vegetable oils and fats of animal origin.

Lipids are composed of 99% triglycerides (fatty acids) and 1% minor components.
The fatty acids can be "saturated" or "unsaturated" according to their chemical configuration:
- Saturated fatty acids are mainly of animal origin, and sometimes vegetable (such as oil palm, coconut);
- Unsaturated fatty acids include: fatty acids called "monounsaturated" as oleic acid (omega-9) and fatty acids called "polyunsaturated" as linoleic acid (omega 6) and acid linolenic (omega 3).

Omega 9 fatty acids can be manufactured by the body, which is not the case of omega 3 and omega 6 which are called "essential". They must necessarily be provided by the diet according to a report (omega 6/om├ęga 3) optimal 5, namely that the amount of omega 6 should not exceed 5 times the omega 3.

What are lipids?

Lipids are an important source of energy in the body:
1 gram of fat = 9 kilocalories (kcal).
Needs lipids represent 30-35% of total energy intake.

What happens there in the body?

• Lipids are components of cell membranes (the membranes that surround cells). Essential fatty acids are constituents of cell membranes especially in neurons.
• Lipids are stored in fat cells (adipocytes) where they form an energy reserve.
• Lipids are used to transport vitamins (fat soluble) and play an essential role in many vital functions (reproduction, immunity, coagulation, inflammation, vision ...).

Lipids Tips

How are dietary lipids?

Dietary fat can be:
- Hidden: those which enter into the constitution of food or which are incorporated in the preparation of meals, pastries, cookies ...;
- Visible: these are the fats for seasoning (vegetable oil), solid fats (vegetable or animal) spreads, cooking.
Vegetable oils are extracted from fruits or seeds (peanuts, olives, nuts, canola, grapeseed, maize, sunflower, wheat germ ...).

Nutritional quality depends on their fatty acid composition: peanut oil contains more saturated fatty acids (19%) but resistant to very high temperatures (frying the book). Other oils contain little saturated fat, but their content in monounsaturated fatty acids, omega 3 and 6 and vitamin E varies greatly depending on the type of oil, hence the importance of varying and oils have in the kitchen of oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids.
Solid fats are of vegetable origin (margarines) and animal (lard, lard).

Products of animal origin are rich in saturated fatty acids (fatty meats, sausages, butter, cream, cheese and dairy products ...).

What should I be wary?

Be wary of heating oil that denatured ture. Therefore check if the oil is rather intended for seasoning, cooking or frying.

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