Genital and anal infections related to viruses of the family "human papillomavirus" or HPV are sexually transmitted infections. These infections Papillomavirus require direct contact with the skin or mucosa (penis, scrotum, vagina, vulva, anus, mouth, ...) and are not transmitted by blood. Dangerousness and contagious character are related to the most latent infections: those contaminants have no symptoms. The main risk of these infections Papillomavirus is the development of cervical cancer of the uterus.
Risks and health issues of Papillomavirus infection
Cervical cancer of the uterus rises eighth most common cancer of women in terms of frequency and fifth in terms of mortality. The Role of Human Papillomavirus (human papillomavirus: HPV) in the development of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix is now well established and diagnostic tests for infection.
The infection is sexually transmitted and most infections are transient, especially among young women. The risk factor is the most significant number of sexual partners encountered. It is only in cases of persistent infection that women present a major risk of cancer of the cervix.
Screening and mechanisms Papillomavirus infection
Papillomavirus infections affect the anogenital region of man and woman. In women, HPV infection of cervical cells can develop in two ways: it can either remain inactive or latent cells remain normal, or activate and modify the infected cells. These changes can be detected using Pap smears and / or test. Abnormal cells can then dissipate spontaneously or degenerate into cancer cells.
Symptoms and signs of HPV infection
HPV infections are often asymptomatic, that is to say, they do not cause any symptoms in the infected individual.
HPV affects both anogenital human than women. In women, this region includes the vulva, cervix and anus. In humans, this region includes the penis, scrotum and anus. Contact with these areas can lead to contamination.
Genital warts are usually a sign of infection.
Papillomavirus infection Prevention
With what should we be confused?
Other sexually transmitted infections exist, with or without symptoms. Syphilis is on the rise and is manifested by the appearance of a chancre (ulcer) indurated and painless on the genitals. In case of injury, medical consultation and samples will make the difference.
Are there possible prevention of infection with HPV?
During sexual activity, prevention is to avoid contact with an infected person: limiting the number of sexual partners can reduce risk, as well as delaying sex until the cervix is trained (18-19 years).
The condom also contributes but does not guarantee total protection.
Tobacco probably representing a risk factor for additional smoking cessation is recommended.
Recently, a vaccine against four types of human papillomavirus most frequently involved in precancerous lesions and cancers of the cervix, precancerous lesions of the vulva (types 16 and 18) and genital warts (the types 6 and 11) was placed on the market. Vaccination against papillomavirus infections 6, 11, 16, 18 is recommended for all girls aged 14 years (before the first reports) to protect them before that of them are at risk of HPV infection. The vaccination schedule consists of three injections with an interval of 2 months between the first and second injection, and an interval of 4 months between the second and third injection.
Papillomavirus infection Preparing consultation
When to see a Papillomavirus infection?
HPV infections are most often very subtle or no symptoms, only the screening will highlight. Among women, it is recommended to make a smear of the cervix to detect abnormal cells quickly. The Pap test (FCU) is recommended for women aged 25 to 65 every three years after two negative FCU one year apart.
Humans, not subject to the usual way of testing this type, all genital warts should be consulted.
What is the doctor?
Visible genital warts can be treated (local treatments, cryotherapy, laser surgery or surgery), but their removal does not necessarily eliminate HPV. In addition, the warts can reappear.
In case of abnormal Pap smear (abnormal cells), a colposcopy may be proposed to consider and take cells from the cervix with a special microscope. Again, treatments such as cryotherapy, electrosurgery or laser surgery may be needed to remove the abnormal cells.
The examination and treatment of any and partners are an integral part of treatment.
How to prepare my next visit?
Any change in sexual practice or partner requires an adaptation of contraception and protection towards sexually transmitted infections. It is essential to tell your doctor for advice.
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