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Definition of type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes

Diabetes is defined by an excess of sugar in the blood (or hyperglycemia) beyond 1.26 g / l fasting or 2 g / l non-fasting. There are several types of diabetes are the two main type 1 and type 2; merely Type 1 diabetes (also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) are discussed in this part. Type 1 diabetes occurs mostly in children and young adults and for 170,000 people.

Risks and consequences of diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disease more common in industrialized countries. Diabetes affects about 3 million subjects (Health Insurance Data Diabetes Treaty: what trends between 2000 and 2005? Practice and Organization of Care 2007, 38: 1-12), but experts agree that this figure is grossly underestimated because one third of diabetics are unaware of their condition. In fact, diabetes can initially remain completely silent. Its complications are, however, a major public health issue, in terms of both medical and economic.

Causes and origins of type 1 diabetes

The pancreas responsible for producing insulin, a hormone regulating blood sugar in the blood is partially or totally destroyed. The onset of diabetes is often sudden in type 1 diabetes. The origin of the failure of the pancreas is so far unknown, but the risk of developing type 1 diabetes is increased if a family history, suggesting a genetic factor. Currently, treatment for life based on multiple daily injections of insulin to compensate for insulin deficiency and prevent complications renal, ocular, neurological and cardiovascular diseases.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes

The onset of symptoms is usually sudden in type 1 diabetes with a triad of symptoms: weight loss, fatigue, thirst important (polydipsia) with very frequent urine (polyuria). Weight loss is sometimes accompanied paradoxically increased food intake.

The increase is related to drink water loss and increase the frequency and volume of urine (3-4 l / day) is related to the leakage of sugar by the kidney.
Diabetes can also be the occasion of its complications called ketoacidosis with dehydration symptoms, abnormal breathing, abdominal pain and even coma and death.

Type 1 diabetes Prevention

With what should we be confused?

Type 1 diabetes should not be confused with other types of diabetes, type 2. The latter (formerly NIDDM) occurs preferentially from 40-50 years and reached between 2 and 3 million topics. Its occurrence, increasingly early is related to lifestyle (sedentary lifestyle, eating habits, overweight ...) and family heredity.
Diabetes insipidus in turn corresponds to a water leak due to a hormonal abnormality: urine volume can reach 10 l / day.

Are there possible prevention of diabetes?

Adopt a balanced diet adapted to their lifestyle should be a priority for any diabetic. Similarly, it is essential to perform regular physical activity, reduce other risk factors for cardiovascular disease by controlling weight. The objective is to obtain a body mass index (i.e your weight / your height squared) less than 25, by reducing cholesterol and stopping smoking. Vaccination against influenza and pneumococcus is also part of the recommendations, diabetic subjects are more sensitive and more susceptible to infections.

Finally, diabetic feet should be reviewed regularly (skin deformations) and pampered (port shoe care, pedicures ...). An annual visit to the eye doctor and dentist complete prevention.

Type 1 diabetes Preparing consultation

When to consult?

The onset of symptoms suggestive of diabetes should lead to a medical consultation to check the rate of blood sugar (glucose controlled at the doctor's office by a finger prick or a laboratory blood test). It is a medical emergency, because in the absence of insulin, the body can not live very long (risk of ketoacidosis and death). Once diagnosed, diabetes or any imbalance infection must consult your doctor to prevent hyper-or hypoglycemia (increase or decrease blood sugar).

What does the doctor in case of type 2 diabetes?

The doctor, in coordination with the specialist (endocrinologist diabetologist) will confirm the diagnosis by blood tests and possibly other tests to detect an origin, risk factors or complications of diabetes. The main goal of treatment is to control blood glucose (blood sugar) is too high due to insulin deficiency. Insulin injections (number of daily injections varies between two and five injections, insulin pump ...) are the basis of this treatment the doctor tells the patient to adjust the dose (TPE) and reduce other risk factors (prevention).

How to prepare my next visit?

Measurement by the patient capillary blood glucose on a drop of blood (self several times a day) is essential between consultations. It allows you to adjust the dose of insulin to achieve the glycemic target set with the doctor and reduce complications. This objective will be checked by the doctor every three months with a blood test (glycated hemoglobin or HbA1c) and the book carefully monitoring completed by the patient.

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