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Infant immunization

What are the sites of injection of vaccines?

In general, immunization injections are in the thigh (anterolateral, middle third) until the age of 1 year, then the upper arm (at the shoulder, outside) beyond.

This applies to all vaccines, except BCG who injects always outside of the arm (deltoid region).

What are the types of injections?

The injection can be done either by intradermal injection (shot short, superficial, tangential to the skin) or subcutaneously (in the tissue above the muscle) or intramuscular (deeper puncture). The latter route leads to a better antibody response to vaccines against hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza and rabies.

The subcutaneous injection is performed in the deltoid region for viral vaccines (MMR, yellow fever ...). Intradermal injection is the reference method for BCG.

Should I apply a patch anesthetic to my child, in anticipation of a vaccination?

It depends on the sensitivity of the physician and parents. The developed Scientists have concluded a significant effect on moderate but the pain of Emla (lidocaine and prilocaine), whose effectiveness is at least equivalent to methods comprising distract the child.

Health authorities advise the routine use of EMLA for repeated injections, but the demand for occasional injections.

The patch is not recommended in areas very fluffy and some children allergic reaction to the glue.

The anesthetic should be applied at least 1 hour prior to the site of the sting.

Can we avoid the formation of a nodule at the injection?

No, it is systematic for all vaccines, but not painful. His appearance reflects vaccine uptake: the local inflammation is the body's normal reaction when inoculated with a vaccine substance.
Intramuscular administration attenuates local reactions.

What are the possible side effects after vaccination?

Access fever are rare, usually mild and transient. Measles vaccine can cause a fever 1 week after injection in 10% of children.

In general, redness, pain, erythema, edema or urticaria may be observed within 48 hours after vaccination and persist for several days at the injection site. They can sometimes be accompanied by irritability, drowsiness, sleep disturbances and diarrhea, anorexia and vomiting.

For SSI BCG vaccine (TB), a papule may appear at the injection site induration sometimes followed a few weeks later may ulcerate and then heal. A regional lymph node less than 1 cm can be. Must then consult the doctor if the induration is more than 3 cm, but if the child is embarrassed in its movements or the ganglion appeared under the arm is visible to the naked eye and soft (suppuration).
Can you bathe your child after a vaccination?

Course. There are no cons-indication or no risk to make him take a bath.

What to do when vaccinations were delayed?

When delay has occurred in the application of the immunization schedule, it is not necessary to repeat the entire program from the beginning. Simply pick up where it left off and continue the number of injections depending of age.

Can you inject multiple vaccines at the same visit?

Multivaccination the same day no problem, provided that vary the injection sites, and whatever vaccines.

However, it is imperative that an interval of one month between two live vaccines.

How to store the vaccine before injection by the doctor?

Out of the pharmacy, the vaccine transported in an insulated bag to be quickly stored in a refrigerator between +2 ° C and +8 ° C.

Some vaccines against measles and rubella, for example, as well as BCG, are more sensitive to light and it packaged in glass vials blackened.

Vaccines against hepatitis B, Hib (liquid), diphtheria tetanus polio (DTP) are sensitive to heat but also to freeze (0 ° C and below).

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