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Hemorrhoid: Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

A hemorrhoid is a group of blood vessels (arteries and veins) in the form of a tumor varices (varicose) due to expansion (increase in size) an abnormal vein in the anus and rectum. Hemorrhoids are located within the mucosa (cell layer covering the inside of the organs in contact with air) and under the skin in this region.

The term hemorrhoid itself is normal since it means an anatomical formation present in all people. Its use as a pathology due to complications in its vessels is awkward but common.

The anal canal is a segment of the digestive tract having the property of fecal continence, liquids, and gases.

The transitional situation of the anal canal between the esophagus and the skin of the perineum is the region constituting the floor of the pelvis, that is to say, of the pelvic region where the external genitalia (vulva in woman) and the anus is special.

The gastrointestinal tract is a cylinder made of a wall having, inside, a mucous membrane, and to the outside, a muscular ensuring mobility of the gut content throughout its path.

At the anus, there is a transition between the outer skin itself and the digestive tract mucosa inside. At this junction, there is shown a transition zone having valves on the side of the mucosa, and just one joining zone endessous of the mucosa and muscularis. This area is controlled by the external sphincter and by setting auto play hemorrhoids.

Contrary to what you think hemorrhoids are essentially veins are also the arteries, and are located between the muscularis mucosa and the anal canal for hemorrhoids called "internal", and between the skin and the fabric cell deep for hemorrhoids called "external." Hemorrhoids can, thanks to their variable swelling, to adapt to varying sizes of the anal canal. They are thus a means of further occlusion of the anus.

Hemorrhoid: Causes

  • Loosening of the attachment between the mucosa and muscularis promoting descent of vascular formations and externalization.
  • Ethnic factors (culinary no doubt), the Mediterranean, North Africans, etc. are more likely to have hemorrhoids.
  • Profession seat.
  • Family factor.
  • Inactivity.

Circumstances triggering

  • Chronic constipation.
  • Diarrhea due to laxative use irritants.
  • Delivery.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Rule.

Overusing suppositories.
Certain sports may be the cause of violent efforts.
Abuse spicy foods, alcohol and coffee.

Hemorrhoid: Symptoms

  • Bleeding from the anus during or just after the stool
  • Swelling (lump) that the patient can perceive with your finger and appearing in anus
  • presence of a more or less intense pain (not always). The pain often reflects a complication of hemorrhoidal disease. This may be a thrombosis (clot inside a vein) internal hemorrhoids when it is in inner hemorrhoids or external hemorrhoids when an interested exterior.
  • Chronic infection.

Hemorrhoid: Medical Technology

The term binding, generally refers to the surgical procedure is to occlude, that is to say, to close a blood vessel or lymphatic vessel. Sometimes, there is a canal.
Ligation is performed using a knotted thread.

The son used to ligate these days are made of synthetic materials who give them a smooth appearance.

There are several varieties of tying son to:

  • The monofilament.
  • The son of different diameters.
  • Catgut is an absorbable suture disappears inside the body over a period ranging from three weeks to two months.
  • The son nonabsorbable linen, silk, horsehair.

According to the organ tying the surgeon uses varieties of ligation.

The ligature used to the fallopian tubes leading to the sterilization of a woman who has no impact on the hormonal cycle as the ovaries are intact and also vascularity.  It is an irreversible sterilization process that is used in women approaching the menopause or in women whose pregnancy is likely to endanger the life of the mother.

The technique of uterine tubal ligation is performed under laparoscopy (insertion and manipulation under optical control instruments in the abdomen after small incision of the skin) is as follows. The surgeon cuts the fallopian tubes or installation clamps or rings to seal the cavities of the tubes.

Ligation of an artery, a vein, a lymphatic vessel, duct of the respiratory tract, a channel is either simple (only use a wire tied) is pressed (the wire passes through the wall of the elements that you wish to block and tie).

Ligation of the vas deferens section also called vasectomy can sterilize a man is irreversibly i.e. final. It is a surgical procedure that is minor but nevertheless requires a hospital stay of two to three days.

The procedure is performed under general anesthesia or loco-regional.
Vasectomy involves cutting both vas deferens surgically. The vas deferens is structures capable of transporting sperm bathed in the seminal fluid, the testes to the urethra.

Vasectomy is mainly used in some countries to sterilize men (birth control).

The vas deferens is cut after incising the overlying skin.
This section is between their output scholarships and entry into the pelvis on each side of the penis.

It is a procedure performed under local or general anesthesia, during a quarter of an hour to half an hour.

Vasectomy does not affect sexual behavior or capacity to erect an individual.
Ejaculation is also normal and postoperative pose no problem. After a few days of discomfort, sex is back to normal but the sperm stagnated inside the testes and epididymides in (structures covering the testicles) at the beginning, and later they are no longer manufactured.

Side effects of vasectomy are.
Two months after surgery, it is necessary to prevent the person having a vasectomy that it is not yet effective, that is to say, that their sperms are still fertilizing. After a two-month period considering sperm (semen) confirms the absence of sperm fertilizing it is azoospermia.

Under certain conditions, it is possible to repermeabiliser channels carrying sperm. It is reaboucher segments of the vas deferens. This procedure is known as vasovasostomy. Nevertheless, the results are not good.

Hemorrhoid: Medical Examination
They are using the anoscope, a small tube provided with a light for observing the inside of the anal canal. This enables the classification of the anatomical position of their hemorrhoids in internal or external hemorrhoids and on the periphery of the anal canal.

Suspicion of cancer of the rectum before anal bleeding required additional tests further in some cases (barium enema or proctoscopy).

Hemorrhoid: Evolution of the disease
It is done by extensive and varies according to individuals.
Sometimes we see chronic externalizing (output continuously (the hemorrhoidal swelling, associated with complications such as thrombosis or infection, causing pain sometimes unbearable.

Hemorrhoid: Treatment

It is implemented only when the hemorrhoids are embarrassing.
Fight against constipation.

Avoid spices, alcohols, heady wines and coffee.

Use of suppositories and ointments that protect Antihaemorrhoidals hemorrhoidal mucosa and facilitate the passage of stool.

Phlebotonic the corresponding drugs for promoting blood circulation by promoting venous wall tone (injections are only effective and relatively high doses).
Inflammatories give good results.

The sclerosing injections intended to cause sclerosis (destruction) of the hemorrhoidal vessels. It is done using a fine needle, injecting an irritating substance. It allows rapid relief to the majority of cases.
Infrared photocoagulation has the advantage of acting directly on the blood vessels and lead to the fixation of the mucosa.

The elastic ligatures and controlled freezing techniques are proposing to destroy hemorrhoids "internal." Their goal is to place a resilient ring on the hemorrhoidal mucosa. This causes a strangulation, and secondarily, a devitalized tissue.
Controlled freezing uses what is called a cryoprobe which allows the use of cold tissue destruction.

The surgery is performed when it is to evacuate a thrombosis (blood clot obliterating the hemorrhoidal vein) external. This intervention is performed under local anesthesia is limited.

The haemorrhoidectomy are under general anesthesia; they aim to remove all packages from hemorrhoids and are accompanied by a dissection of all vascular bundles. This intervention is the specialization of proctology., It can also be performed by a gastroenterologist.

Circumferential mucosectomy.
This relatively new technique for treating hemorrhoids of third degree (with prolapse: output) techniques called Longo is less painful and allows a quicker return to activities. It seems that also this technique may allow to earlier discharge.

This type of surgery should be performed by an experienced surgeon. Indeed, it is necessary to keep an area of ​​sensitive skin without which continence is no longer possible.

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