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Infection control : Principles of universal infection control precautions


Problem: Health care personnel at risk of virus infection from blood and direct and indirect patient contact.

Goal: Staff will get an infection.

Principles of preventive infection control

Universal precautions for infection control (UICP) procedures, which apply to all patients, transfer of blood-borne diseases reduced - such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or hepatitis B or C or other health worker or patient. As it is impossible to know which patients may be infected without the blood test is recommended that all patients should be considered as a potential risk (Research 1997). The most likely mode of transmission is through an acute injury or from blood or body, fluids splash directly on mucous membranes or eyes, and therefore, routine measures to protect staff and patients. UICP application to patient care will be the spread of MRSA before they are confirmed by laboratory results.

The measures for infection control are:

● Prevention of blood or fluids to come into contact with broken

● skin or mucous membranes

● reduce the blood or body fluid contact with intact skin

● avoid injury from sharp objects

● protection of workers against hepatitis B and C

● Prevention of contaminated items from patients receiving (Ayliffe et al. 1999).

Current measures

There are several common measures should always be taken:

● It is your own responsibility for vaccination against hepatitis B is to make sure that you're continuously updated.

● Hand washing is essential before, between and after patient contact opportunities (Figure 3.2).

● Skin: broken skin should be covered with a waterproof dressing, which acts as a barrier to micro-organisms, steer clear of persistent procedures as unrelieved skin wounds.

● Gloves be supposed to worn at some point in procedures that transmit risk of infection throughout blood or fluid (see below).

● Protective clothing such as aprons to wear to reduce pollution (see below).

● Nasal mucous membranes of eyes, mouth and must be protected against splashes of blood or body fluids, such as safety goggles during tracheal suction can be used if contamination of water with saline and following steps 4-6 below.

● Know the procedure for dealing out of needle stick injury. Concentrate and engage in the process to prevent from happening.


Slim's really a needle stick injury to happen, or steps leading to infection, but make sure you know, assuming that it happens. Do not be tempted to have to deal with later because you are busy. Trust is the responsibility of specialists in their Trust, which will be able to reduce infection risk assessed and appropriate advice and support (UK health departments 1998), provided to allow.

Disposal of sharps

● Sharps should be used and disposed of very carefully:

● Take personal responsibility for waste with sharp, you are using

● immediately after use

● Never resheath needle

● be sharp as near as possible using

● crowded containers that are not sharp (it should be more than two-thirds full).

Measures in case of acute injury

1st Encourage wound to bleed, suck.

2nd Wash the area with warm water and soap or an antiseptic completely.

3rd Cover with a waterproof dressing.

4th If you notice a patient is known.

5th immediately notify the health department at work if possible, or slot (e.g. emergency) per hour. This allows you to post-exposure prophylaxis of HIV and hepatitis B get.

6th inform your supervisor and document the incident (Department of Health 1998).

Spilled blood or fluid

Blood stains require treatment or hypochlorite solutions ะต.g. Domestos Milton sodium dichlorvos isocapnia (NaDCC),  chlorine-free (e.g. rule Haz Tabs) before the area is cleared by writing the local infection-control protocols (Ministry of Health of Great Britain 1998).


● Wipe leakage of body fluids immediately.

● Wear gloves and apron, or livestock to store paper towels, or if the ground is suitable, covered with grains NaDCC.

● Allow a few minutes.

● Clear towel or granules and dispose of biological waste bag (usually yellow).

● Created with sodium hypochlorite.


Use the color codes for the household and clinical waste. The common color coding in the UK:

● black or clear garbage bags for household and family

● yellow bags for medical waste, including human or animal tissue, feces, blood or body fluids or pharmaceutical glass, cans and sharp objects are disposed separately.

● waste bags and containers be labeled showing clinical area where the search originated, if necessary.


It should also be bagged in bags color-coded:

● white bags, used and dirty laundry

● red outer bag to freedom of bleeding and infectious, potentially dangerous laundry staff notice.

When cleaning up after the procedure, or need to make sure that sharp objects were deleted accidentally in linen - it causes additional risks to a personnel laundry.

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